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         Gallia County News During the  War

as recorded in articles in the Gallipolis Journal from 1861 - 1865. These articles were researched and transcribed, unless otherwise indicated, by Eva Swain Hughes. The Articles are divided into five pages with a separate page for each year. Click on the year you wish to see.

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The Gallipolis Journal
January 5, 1865

     Capt. Milton Stewart, Co. B, 13th Va., has been promoted to Lieut. Col. He entered as a private in the 4th Va., in June, 1861, and has worked his way up to his present rank, though barely 21 years of age. He is probably the youngest Lieut. Colonel in the service.

Promotions in the 91st O.V.I.
     Major L. Z. Cadot to be Col., Capt. S. Crossly to be Major
     1st Lieuts. to Capts.—Mr. D. Burbage and Thos. W. Rose
     2d Lieuts. to 1st Lieuts.— Mr. M. Belcher and E. S. Wilson
     Sergts. to 2d Lieuts.— Lewis D. Hall, Isaac H. Neal, Henry B. Woodrow, and Vincent Radcliff

     The Journal office has been moved from the old stand, to the brick building of Mr. E. Deltomb, on Second street two doors below Menager's Grocery store. There our patrons will find us ready to wait upon them.

The Gallipolis Journal
January 12, 1865

The following letter from a Gallipolisian who "has been there" may prove interesting to some of our readers who contemplate emigrating to the gold regions. Our friend is evidently not disappointed in his expectations.
Virginia City, Montana Terr., November 22d, 1864

Friend C:
     I promised to write you as soon as I should arrive in this country and become settled. We left Leavenworth on the 3d of May and had pleasant weather for three days when it commenced raining and continued to do so for several days. It then cleared up, and remained clear the balance of our trip. After three weeks travel we reached Fort Kearney on Platte river. Crossing the river, we followed up the north Platte to upper Platte bridge. We passed several camps of Sioux Indians who treated us kindly. We travelled along until we reached Fort Laramie. Our road passing through the Black Hill(s), was said to be infested by hostile Indians, and in order to protect ourselves we joined a band of Pilgrimes [sic] on their way to the land of promise. We took the cut off by Fort Bridger. The first part of the road is a sandy desert, without water except by digging about ten feet and then it is so impregnated with alkali that it is almost unfit for use. Our road lay through the desert for fifty miles. After leaving it the water was plenty and very good.
     On reaching Yellow Stone river, one of our party took sick, and we lay by awaiting his recovery. While doing so, some of us concluded to go on a prospecting tour. I packed 30 days "grub," shouldered my blanket and started. We followed up the Yellow Stone, prospecting as we went along, finding gold but not in sufficient quantity to justify working. On the 29th day out we came to Yellow Stone lake which is the head of the Yellow Stone river. This lake is almost thirty miles across. On account of scarcity of provisions we were obliged to return to the road. Crossing the river about 20 miles below the lake we followed down the left side of the river. On reaching the road we learned from a board nailed on a tree, that the sick man died the day after we left camp, and that our train had passed on for Virginia city two weeks before we reached the road. This was a predicament to be placed in. We were out of provision(s) and had been for three days. I hunted up my meat sack and found the paws of a bear we had killed some time before. We put them in a pot of water, and shaking our meal sacks, made a raise of about a pint of meal, with this we made a soup that furnished breakfast for 13 men.
     We then started for Virginia city distant 125 miles, with little prospect of anything to eat until we reached that place. But fortune favored us. On the 3d day we overtook some Pilgrimes [sic]. They proved to be Walker's train from Missouri, many of the men that were with us in the prospecting tour belonging to this train. They had waited for us until two days before we returned to the road. They wanted us to eat. I espied a pot of mush and a pail of milk. If mush and milk ever suffered [sic] that was the time. We remained with them until we reached Virginia city. I hunted up some of our boys and found them building cabins for winter. I was not much surprised at finding things in this country as I expected. The Gulch on which Virginia city is built is very rich in gold, some of the claims paying as high as eight hundred dollars a day, whilst others do not pay for working. There are a number of other Gulches in this country but labor is now too high and scarce to pay for working them. Quite a number of quartz leads have been found, and two or three quarts mills in operation and several others will be up in the next season. Wages are from four to six dollars per day. Flour is now selling at $28 per cwt. Bacon 65 cts. per pound! Coffee, 65 cts. and other things in proportion. Clothing sells for about the same in Gold, as it does with you in Greenbacks. Whiskey very common sells at $8 per gallon or 25 cts. a drink. You can tell all the people that think of coming to this country that they can make a living by hard work, but they need not expect any big thing.
     Yours truly,

     The U. S. General Hospital at Gallipolis, now contains 184 inmates. The wards will comfortably accommodate 400 men. Many of our sick soldiers about Nashville would be happy to find themselves in this Hospital. It is a matter of surprise, to their friends that they are not sent here.

     Col. R. B. Hayes, 23d O.V.I., has been made a Brigadier General to date from Oct. 22d, 1864. An appointment fit to be made, that is.—

     We are pleased to find the Gallia Academy in a most flourishing condition. Prof. A. G. Sears and lady, are certainly deserving of the patronage the public is awarding them.

     The Buckeye Foundry is now prepared with new and extensive machinery to manufacture and repair all kinds of steamboat or mill machinery, threshing machines, horse powers, &c. Farmers will find the "Buckeye" an exceedingly convenient and handy institution.

     The "Sherman House" in Gallipolis, is now open for the reception of guests. The House has been thoroughly refitted and newly furnished. [ . . .] The proprietor of the Garnett House, says he is prepared to accommodate the public, not only by entertainment at his Hotel, but has for their accommodation, always in readiness, a two-horse hack, to convey them to, or from the river, or to any point within the corporation limits.

     The Union Woolen Factory in Gallipolis, has been lately supplied with extensive new machinery, and looms, and is now prepared to manufacture largely, all kinds of woolen goods. This establishment is one of the best in Southern Ohio and affords employment to a great many persons. [ . . .]

     There is a movement on foot, we are informed to obtain a charter constituting Gallipolis, a city of the second class. This, if successful, will confer power upon the munnicipal [sic] authorities to levy a tax upon property holders, for the improvement of the sidewalks. At present there seems to be no such power existing, and the owners of corner lots, or other unimproved lots, need give themselves no uneasiness about the tax. A city charter will work a wondrous change, we imagine, in the minds of those who hold property merely for speculation. Lots will likely come into market, when a bill for paving would consume half their value. "Stick in the mud" seems about being played out. The "fossils" will have to bestir themselves to defeat the measure in the Legislature, or Gallipolis will surely rise from her "primitive mud" to a state of cleanliness that few hoped to see during this generation. The "world does move" and our worthy Mayor is bound to see that Gallipolis moves with it. Success attend his efforts, and we will pray &c.

     About 9 o'clock on Monday night last, the dwelling house of the Editor of this paper narrowly escaped destruction by fire. A little daughter about twelve years of age went upstairs having a lighted candle in her hand, in search of some articles of clothing. Shortly after her return to the family sitting room, the attention of her mother was attracted by a noise as of fire burning. On going to an outer door the light was plainly visible through a window, and seizing a bucket of water the mother passed upstairs, and found the fire making such headway that two minutes longer would have rendered it uncontrollable. Throwing up the window, at the imminent peril of her life she seized a quantity of clothing suspended against the wall which was all a fire, and threw it out, the rain then falling, extinguishing the flames. The lining of the room being of white pine and very dry, the fire made rapid progress. Three small children were sleeping in the room and the bed of one was actually on fire. To get these children out, and extinguish the fire required a presence of mind, and fortitude not often exhibited, yet all was safely effected by the mother and daughter, as there was no male person about the house. [ . . . ] Time spent in giving the alarm, would have resulted in the destruction of the building and probable death of the children.

     Our worthy fellow citizen, Roman Menager, Esq., has sold his farm in Mason county, Va., for $30,000. cash. This does not look as if lands in West. Va. were likely to sell at low rates.

Colored Refugees from Monroe co., Va.
     Jim Haines (colored) aged about 60 years, or his son Jim Haines, Jr., from Monroe county, Va., are informed that Henry Haines is at Utica, Macomb county, Michigan, 20 miles north of Detroit, and wishes them to come to that place immediately. Any person seeing this advertisement and knowing their whereabouts will confer a great favor, by informing them, or leave information at the office of this paper, where the editor will give them other important information.

     The undersigned, having fitted up a first class Gallery, over J. C. Preistley's Store, corner of Court and Second streets, is now prepared to furnish all those who may favor him with a call, with first class Pictures, such as Ambrotypes, Photographs, &c. GIVE AN OLD SOLDIER A CALL. All work guaranteed. George A. Baldwin

News Depot and Livery Stable. Gallipolis.
Cincinnati dailies, New York weeklies, Harper's, Atlantic, and all the various Magazines always on hand.

The Gallipolis Journal
January 19, 1865

     Lieut. D. M. Coffman, late of the 7th Ohio cavalry, and just returned from Southern imprisonment, has been commissioned to recruit for the new regiments. Headquarters at the National Hotel, Gallipolis.

     We have received as Military Agent, pension certificate for George Bruner,—certificate for arrears and bounty due Elijah Darst, pay and bounty for James L. Barton, discharged soldier, money packages by express for T. Weed and others. We furnish the above items, by way of showing the several kinds of business transacted at this agency free of any charge to the applicants. Soldiers and their friends should be informed, that their claims of any kind are attended to without charge.

     Capt. S. F. Neal, company A, 91st O.V.A., has been promoted to Major, vice S. Crossley resigned. This is a capital appointment, and we doubt not it will be filled by our friend and townsman with credit to himself and the regiment.

     The "Trumbull Guards," are about to return into town, and occupy the buildings at the market house as a barracks. A new guard house on the public square, has been lately erected by Major Allen, that looks large enough to contain all offenders, whether male or female. [ . . . ]

     On Friday last about noon some of the scholars attending the Union School, went upon the ice in the creek in (the) rear of the school building to skate. The ice gave way and several were plunged into the water. Thomas Brown, only son of Mrs. Phoebe Brown, aged about 10 years, was drowned. The others were rescued without suffering more than the chilling comfort of a cold bath.

The Gallipolis Journal
January 26, 1865

     Mr. Arington, in the employ of Mr. Aleshire of the Eureka mills, received a severe kick in the breast one day last week, from a horse belonging to Capt. C. C. Aleshire, that was very sick and to which he was endeavoring to administer some medicine. The horse died a few hours after. He was a very valuable animal, and we learn, $400 had been offered for him.

     Col. J. H. M. Montgomery, of the 33d O.V.I., has been honorably discharged from the service, in consequence of the terrible wound he received at Kenesaw Mountain.—The army thus loses one of her bravest men. Col. Montgomery has made a record for himself, that requires no eulogism at our hands. But for his wounds he would today be with Sherman and if possible a "leetle" in advance. His numerous friends will be gratified to learn, that his general health has greatly improved since the dastardly attack made by a set of ruffians upon him, a few weeks since on board the Ohio No. 3. His efforts to defend himself, in some way relieved the lung affected by that fatal bullet, so as to enable him to breathe freely and relieve him of a distressing cough. The Col. allows it was pretty hard medicine to take, but the result has thus far greatly improved his health. He expects to go into the service again, as soon as his strength will justify him.

     Major General Crook and staff visited Gallipolis on Friday night last, being prevented by the ice in the river from reaching Parkersburg by boat, and consequently obliged to travel to the railroad via Oak Hill. We found as one of the staff, our highly esteemed friend Capt. H. W. Douglas, who preceded Capt. H. S. Webb in the Commissary Department at Gallipolis. He is now chief C. S. of the department of West Va., and as may be expected, one of the most efficient and popular officers in the Department. He was taken prisoner and enjoyed the hospitalities of Libby prison for about nine months, which very certainly did not diminish his well known hatred of the rebellion and its leaders. The Capt. looks as fine as though he had not been an active participant in the privations and honors of the war for four years past. Capt. H. S. Cherington of the 36th O.V.I., is also a member of the staff as A.P.M. and is highly esteemed as a gentleman and efficient officer. In one short interview with Gen. Crook, we were not disappointed in our preconceived notions of his character as a gentleman and a soldier.

     Some excitement prevails in Gallipolis relative to burying colored soldiers in the cemetery belonging to the corporation. Last Summer, by direction of the Governor we endeavored to purchase two acres of land continguous to the Hospital, for a burying ground for soldiers, to which those now in the cemetery should be removed, and all thereafter dying at this post or brought here to be interred there. We could find no person willing to sell except at most exorbitant rates, nor did anyone seem then to take special interest in it. Had we been properly sustained in the measure by the council, and citizens, the present difficulty about the burial of a few colored soldiers would not exist. We are still prepared to execute a contract with any man for two acres of land suitable for a soldiers cemetery, provided he don't [sic] ask twice as much for it for that purpose, as he would if purchased by individuals for their own use. The council may save themselves much trouble, and our citizens be saved the trouble of unnecessary excitement on a subject, which under the circumstances should meet with less hostility from Union men.

Mr. Editor:—
     I have been spending a few days in your flourishing town, and am much pleased with it. I think a little public spirit on the part of your citizens would soon make your town a very pleasant one to live in. But now, oh horrible what pavements and crossings; no lady can get about without having her dress completely spoiled. It is too bad.
     Cinder pavements seem to have been adopted by your citizens. I suppose they are well enough in dry weather. Would it not be well for your city fathers to prepare for the coming drought, and procure a large quantity of this most valuable paving material (cinder) from the rolling mills at Ironton and Portsmouth, and have your town paved with it from one end to the other. It would be a great saving of shoe leather.
Excuse me for making these suggestions,
     Matilda Hays
     The above was handed in at a time when the mud on our sidewalks, was variously estimated at from three inches to one foot. [ . . . ] We look for better things after the city charter is once obtained, an object that meets universal approbation from all men. But in case it should fail, we don't see why our citizens should stick in the mud, because our corporation officers happen to be so, for want of sufficient authority, to get us all out.

The Gallipolis Journal
February 16, 1865

     The many friends of the Hon. J. J. Coombs, and his interesting lady, have heard with extreme regret, that they have lost their son, William H. Coombs, fifteen years of age, by being drowned in the Potomac, at Washington City. It appears that on the 30th of January, with skates in hand, he, and a juvinal [sic] associate, full of life and bouyant spirits, hurried to the Potomac, then covered with a smooth sheet of ice, to engage with other juvinales [sic] in a skating frolic, that his associate and himself, put off full of glee, and sportive feeling, for the Virginia shore, not being aware that a narrow channel had a short time previously been cut by an ice boat, rushed for the point of destination. On reaching the narrow channel covered with a thin sheet of ice, young Coombs sank to rise no more, in water sixteen feet deep. Although every effort was made to recover the body, up to the 5th inst., it had not been found. To Hon. J. J. Coombs and his interesting consort, their friends offer their sincere condolence(s) at the shrine of their sorrow. L. N.

     A petition will be presented to the commissioners, of Gallia county, at their March session, A.D. 1865, praying for the establishment of a new county road, in Springfield township, commencing at the county road, near Thomas White's where a township road intersects said road, thence a westerly direction, with said township road, to the northwest corner of W. F. Cherington's land, thence a southerly direction, to the south-east corner Wm. M. Cherington's 20 acre lot, thence a southwesterly course, through the land of David Hank's heirs to the north line of T. W. Blake's land, thence west, with said line, as near as a good road can be had, to Wm. M. Cherington's field, a southwesterly course to T. W. Blake's line, thence south, with said line, until it intersects the Wilksville [sic] road, near Westerman Chapel.

The Gallipolis Journal
February 23, 1865

Depot Quartermaster's Office, Gallipolis, Ohio, Feb. 21st, 1865
     Sealed proposals will be received at this office, until Wednesday, March 1st, 1865, at 4 o'clock P.M., for furnishing all the Coal that may be required for use, by the United States Steamers, plying on the Kanawha river, and all other Steamers in the United States service requiring Coal at this depot from the 1st of March, 1865, to the 30th of June, 1865, inclusive, to be delivered at Gallipolis, Ohio, and at Charleston, West Va., on board of decked barges from time to time in such quantities as the public service may require.
     Sealed Proposals will be received at the same time for furnishing all the Coal that may be required during the same period, for use at the United States General Hospital, and the camps, barracks, offices, and workshops (except Coal for Smith shops) at this Depot. The Coal to be delivered at the public wharf from the ordinary boats or barges in which it is usually transported, in such quantities from time to time as the necessities of the public service may require. Each class of proposal above mentioned, viz:—for delivery of Steamers at Gallipolis, Ohio, and at Charleston, West Va., and at Gallipolis, Ohio, for Hospitals, &c., will be received and considered separately. The Coal to be equal in quality to the best Pomeroy or Fields Creek Coal, and to be at the contractor's risk until it shall have been delivered to the Steamers, or to the government teams.
     The contractors will be required to give bond with good and sufficient security for the time and faithful performance of the contracts. The right to reject any or all bids is expressly reserved for the undersigned, should they be deemed unreasonable or from any other cause prejudicial to the interests of the government. All bids should be endorsed on the envelope "Proposals for Coal" and directed to the undersigned at Gallipolis, Ohio. Bidders are invited to be present at the opening of the bids. H. H. Boggess, Capt. & A.Q.M.

     Quite an excitement was raised at our landing about 6 o'clock last Monday morning, by the alarm of fire in that quarter, found to proceed from the steamer Nettie Hartupee. The flames had made such headway when discovered, that although every effort was made by those on board, it was impossible to check them, and someone having cast the boat's lines loose from the wharf-boat, the crew were compelled to get ashore. She was brought in again to the ferry landing, and exertions made to save the hull, which were successful. The fire is supposed to have originated in the cook house where a fire had just been started for preparing breakfast. The boat was owned by Capts. H. N. Bailey, J. H. Koontz, and Mr. Wise; and valued at $20,000, on which we understand, Capts. Bailey and Koontz have an insurance of $10,000, in the Citizens and American companies.

     To those who have lost friends or relatives in the Shenandoah Valley, and wish to have their bodies brought home. Having made three successful trips to the battle-fields about Winchester for the recovery of bodies, of men interred there, I would give notice that I shall return there once more on Saturday, next week, and wish to make it my last trip. Persons having friends buried there, and wishing them brought home, will do well to call on me, and I will take charge of all such cases, entrusted to my care, and unless unavoidable accidents occur, will return promptly with the bodies. Jas. R. Skees, Undertaker

     Military Agent Wetmore telegraphed the Governor that 580 Ohio men were among the last arrival(s) of exchanged prisoners at Anapolis [sic]. He has been instructed to see that they receive prompt attention, and to give them such relief as they may need.

[The following paragraphs all refer to the matter of claims of property damage sustained by property owners while soldiers were encamped on or nearby their land.]

     Inquiries are frequently made of us, by claimants for damages committed by the National Guards and the 192d Pa., last fall, in and around Gallipolis, as to the prospects of adjustment and payment. For the benefit of such persons and others interested, we publish the following correspondence. From it the claimants can easily understand why it is they are not paid, and who is to blame for the delay. At the earliest solicitation of the owners of land adjacent to Gallipolis, on which these regiments were encamped. We addressed the Governor as follows:

Office O.S. Mil. Agency, Gallipolis, Ohio, Aug. 31, '64

     The 140th, 141st, and 172d regiment(s) of O.N.G. and 192d Pa., have committed serious waste upon the different farms adjoining town, on which they were encamped. Most of these farmers sustained heavy losses in 1862, by troops under George Morgan, and in 1863 by our forces in pursuit of John Morgan.—For they have never received one cent nor make any claim.
     Now, that prices of every thing have greatly advanced, and fencing material, not to be had in this section at any price, they become restive on seeing their fences torn down and burned, their corn fields destroyed, orchards and gardens ruined without any recompense whatever.
Every one presumes he has a right to occupy my time, and command my services in obtaining payment of his claim, because of my position as "State Agent." It subjects me to great annoyance far beyond my compensation as agent.
     To satisfy them, I have presumed to address you on the subject, with the hope that by presenting the case to Gen. Heintzelman he might order the commander of the Post to appoint a commission, whose duty it should be to view and assess the damages sustained by these men, which awards might be referred to the Secretary of War, who would likely order them paid.
     The Paymaster, up to this hour (2 P.M.) has not reached Gallipolis. The 140th and 141st, handed over their arms on Sunday last, and since then, their officers have exercised little or no control over them. The men are exceedingly turbulent, noisy, and disposed to act as they please. It is to be hoped that nothing serious may result from this state of affairs, but the presence of 4,000 soldiers in and about a small village like this, without proper restraint on (the) part of the officers, is certainly no trivial matter.
     We could have re-enlisted 100 men for one year, out of the companies belonging to this county, had they been promptly paid and mustered out; now they are sullen and refuse to do anything. I have the honor to be, Very Respectfully,
     Your ob't servant,
     R.L. Stewart, O.S.M. Agent To his Excellency, Jno. Brough, Gov. of Ohio

    This letter or a copy of it was referred by Gov. Brough immediately to Gen. Heintzelman, by whom it was promptly referred to the commander of this Post, then Col. John Fergerson, of the 172d O.N.G. to report the facts. For certain reasons which may be divined, the report was delayed until Col. W. B. Thomas assumed command, and then the following report was drawn up by Col. Fergerson, copied by Post Adjutant Messer, and signed by Col. Thomas, who afterward admitted he had done so, on the word of Col. Fergerson and even without reading our letter or having a knowledge of the facts.

Post Headquarters, Gallipolis, O., Sept. 13, '64

Capt. C. M. Potter, A.A.G.; Sir:
     In regard to the depradations committed by troops at this Post, I have the honor to report—The statement by Mr. Steward [sic] is very much exaggerated. Upon diligent inquiry I can learn of no such destruction of private property as he mentions, and cannot learn of a single garden or orchard that has been ruined by troops at this Post. I learn from Col. Ferguson, who was in command at the time, that the arrival at this Post of the 140th and 141st regiments, O.N.G., was entirely unexpected. No knowledge of their coming having been received until they were at the levee. The 140th regiment, O.N.G., came early in the evening of a very disagreeable day, and were encamped upon the farm of S. Barlow, Esq. The officers were particularly instructed not to allow any depredations whatever committed; but fuel could not be hauled in season, and that night men burned the rails of the fence upon one end of the lot upon which they were encamped; that is the only instance that has come to my knowledge. Green corn, potatoes and apples have been taken by the men, but in very inconsiderable quantities, and the owners of the same ask no compensation for it, and have never complained at these Headquarters. As to the men being "turbulent and noisy and without proper restraint on part of the officers," that statement has no foundation in fact, whatever. Endorsed herewith is an editorial from the Gallipolis "Dispatch" which speaks for itself, and "A Card," published in the "Journal," Mr. Stewart's own paper, having reference to the conduct of the 192d regiment, Pa. Vol., which encamped upon the farm of Mr. Smithers. All of which is respectfully submitted. I have the honor to be
     Very Respectfully,
     Your ob't servant, W. B. Thomas, Col. 192d Reg't Pa. Vol. Commanding Post Geo. W. Messer,
     Post Adjutant

     This document remarkable only for its falsity was forwarded without our knowledge probably in hope that there the matter would end. Gov. Brough kindly furnished us a copy of it. To prove it a tissue of falsehoods from beginning to end was (an) easy matter. We took the testimony of Messrs. Barlow, Smithers, Meikle, Beck, Hamilton, Hawkins, Preston, Drs. Stone and Bell and several others in support of the facts asserted by us in our letter. They not only fully sustained us, but showed that half had not been stated, They proved that orchards and gardens were ruined, that the 140th and 141st were looked for daily. That the former arrived in the evening of as fair a day as the sun ever shone upon, that wood was on the ground in a very short time after reaching camp, that the men burned no rails, but destroyed long lines of board fences, these complaints were frequently made at headquarters by parties whose property was destroyed, that the men were turbulent and noisy, and not under proper restraint, &c. These affidavits after being exhibited to Col. Thomas, were forwarded to the headquarters of Gen. Heintzelman, where the commanders of this post aforesaid, have not attempted to contradict them, or to sustain their "report of the fact." The main thing in view was to suspend action on our letter until the officers of these regiments were out of the service. That point gained the claimants can "whistle" for their damages. The fault was not with us and we publish these letters to show where it lies.

The Gallipolis Journal
March 2, 1865

     Some months ago, Capt. C. W. Moulton, A. Q. M., formerly of this post, tendered his resignation, which he was informed was accepted. He at once opened a law office in Cincinnati and had acquired considerable practice. It turns out, that the Secretary of War, on re-consideration, declined to accept his resignation, and today Colonel Moulton is again in charge of the Cincinnati Depot as Chief Quartermaster. The War Department never fails to accept promptly the resignation of dishonest or inefficient officers. The distinguished honor thus conferred on Capt. Moulton, by promoting him to the rank of Colonel, and re-instating him in the most extensive purchasing Depot of the United States, is evidence that his integrity and efficiency as an officer are highly appreciated by the Department, and is a great gratification to his numerous friends who well know his sterling qualities. [ . . . ]

     Capt. H. H. Boggess, A. Q. M. at this post, tendered his resignation, which has been accepted, and he is now turning over the property in his charge to his successor, Capt. Forsyth, A. Q. M. Capt. Boggess, has been so long connected with this post that he seems like one of our own citizens, who by his gentlemanly deportment, has won the esteem of his neighbors. In Capt. Boggess the service loses a faithful, honest, and efficient officer, and one whose loyalty and devotion to the Union has [sic] never been doubted. Being advanced in life, the care and vexation attending the duties of his office, seriously affected his health, and "having served his three years," he considered it a duty to himself and family, to enjoy the comforts of private life. He will return to his home in Indiana, bearing with him the best wishes of his many friends, that his declining years may be spent in peace under a Government united and prosperous, and of whose flag, all may exclaim, "long may she wave."

The Gallipolis Journal
March 16, 1865

Green Township, Gallia County, Ohio
Mr. Editor:
     Permit me through your columns in behalf of the citizens of Green township to compliment our worthy and patriotic young friend Charles McCormick for his refusal to be credited out of his own township for a paltry sum of money. Such an act will not go unrewarded. Charles, we bid you God speed, we hope you will pass through all the dangers that may surround you and at last return home, to enjoy the caresses of fond friends which will be a greater bounty than a few dollars in Greenbacks. GREEN TOWNSHIP

     We received a telegram from Adjutant General Cowen, directing Col. Montgomery, to proceed to Columbus for the purpose of being remustered into the service as a field officer in one of the new regiments. The Colonel informs us that in consequence of having taken a severe cold, his health has become greatly impaired, and he is forced, much against his will, to decline the proffered honor. It is a source of profound regret to the Colonel's friends that his earnest wishes cannot be gratified. His valor and patriotism have endeared him to every loyal man, and we are pleased to see that it is properly appreciated at Columbus. It is to be hoped that the Colonel may soon recover from this relapse, and yet be able to aid in the final closing up of the rebellion.

     Mr. Hurlburt private of the 23d O.V.I. taken prisoner at Winchester, reached home on Thursday last from Danville. He confirms the usual tale of wretchedness and misery that our prisoners have to undergo in the hells of the Confederacy. The exchange now (in the) making, is happily restoring many of those brave boys to life and liberty again. All confined at Danville, that were able to leave were sent North.

For the Gallipolis Journal
Mr. Editor:
     Being at the Capital and engaged for a day or two with gentlemen from your county, who were charged with the care of recruits, and who brought them according to order from the Military authorities, to Camp Chase, to have them mustered, I feel it a duty to Mr. Jackson, the agent from your town, who came with the men for the purpose of paying the local bounty, to say that it was his misfortune, not his fault to fall among thieves, and to find at Camp Chase a market, instead of a muster for his men.
Mr. Jackson, as I understand it, brought over eighty men, all of whom had been properly enlisted, and credited upon their enlistment to your town, and of this number all but five were bought off from him at Camp Chase. The military authorities all unite in saying that the law allows the recruit at the time of his muster, to fix his credit. This is the law and of its propriety I have no disposition to speak; but it will be perhaps a kindness to other localities that are exerting themselves to clear themselves from the draft, that you should publish the fact, that if they have money they can buy all the credits they may desire at Camp Chase, or if they have men, they had better have them mustered before bringing them to this place.—The military authorities here, lay the blame upon military committees for not having the recruits mustered in their respective districts. In the case above cited, I understood that the men were sent by authority, or order of the Ajutant [sic] General. The Adjutant General, however, disclaims such order, beyond making the matter optional with the Military Committee, after warning them of (the) danger, such as has resulted, of losing the recruits. And as a consequence the blame, if blame there be, lies at the door of the District Provost Marshal of your district, who from some cause failed to muster these men at the proper place and time.
     It is pleasant in this connection to record the fidelity of the recruits from Clay township, every one of whom, maintained their integrity under the temptation of a large increase of pay. I myself heard some of these men refuse five hundred dollars because they had agreed to go for three hundred. I congratulate Clay township for having such men and also Mr. Joshua Clark, who returns home with a lighter heart, than he could have done, had he been as unfortunate as Mr. Jackson.
     This subject demands some inquiry, and it is in this spirit that I write, and not with the intention of reflecting upon the official doings of any concerned. FAIR PLAY

     Considerable excitement exists in this community relating to the operation of the Act of Congress of 3d of March last, upon credits for enlisted men. It seems to be the general opinion, that from and after that date, no township or subdistrict could enlist men out of other districts. Such should have been the law long since. Wealthy districts have been able to buy their men from poor or sparsely settled townships, thus leaving them without men enough to fill their quota even by draft.
     Measures have been adopted to obtain credit for the men, that our county was lately swindled out of, at Columbus. If successful, we presume the parties that paid the bounties, and induced these men to commit perjury, will find their labor lost and money also, a result that but few in Gallipolis will fail to rejoice at. It was bad enough to be cheated in the assignment of our quota, but after obtaining the men by dint of perseverance and energy, to have them spirited away by a set of unscrupulous swindlers and knaves, such as hang around Provost Marshals headquarters, was "cutting it a little too fat," for even the well known patience of our people.

The Gallipolis Journal
March 23, 1865

     H. F. Wood of Co. M 7 O.V.C., captured at Rogersville, Tenn., in Nov. 1863, and kept close prisoner at Bell Isle, Andersonville, and Florence for over sixteen months, reached his home in Gallipolis on last Sunday. Probably no one from Gallia county has had a more enlarged experience of Southern prisons than our friend Felix Wood. Under it all he bore up like a man, and returns in comparatively good health. It is unnecessary to say that he was gladly welcomed by our people with whom he was always a favorite. We hope to lay before our readers next week a narrative of his sojourning in Dixie, and his experience of the delight of Southern prisons.

     Rebel deserters are coming to Gallipolis by scores. They look as if hard times prevailed in the country they came from. After four years of war, it looks as though they were late in the day in coming to their senses. Better late however than not at all. A tramp on foot through the North we think would be less expensive than rations and transportation at the cost of the Government they have been fighting against. We don't exactly see the propriety of it, but probably others do.

     Capt. Forsyth A.Q.M. at this post, says he has received several anonymous letters, making charges against individuals in the department, and wishes us to say to the writers of all such papers, that if any one will present himself in person, or sign his name to the letter, that he will promptly investigate the matter, but can not, nor will not take any notice of accusations made by persons who have not the courage to make their assertions good.

     Ohio, according to the report of the Commissioner of Statistics, Professor Mansfield, has lost during the war a total of 13,270 men, in the military service.

The Gallipolis Journal
March 30, 1865

     The steamer J. G. Blackford, is now running regularly between Cincinnati and Parkersburg. Capt. Ford is too well known in this region to require any extended notice at our hands. The following complimentory [sic] notice was furnished us by the officers of the fleet on her late trip.

On Board Steamer J. G. Blackford, Parkersburg, W. Va., March 24

Editor Gallipolis Journal: Sir:
     The fleet that arrived here to-day with troops, under command of Maj. Gen. Croft, has since leaving Nashville, Tenn., experienced some of the most violent weather that any steamboat man has seen on the Ohio river, for the last 20 years. Yet it has been our good fortune to get through all safe.
     The following boats comprised the fleet: J. G. Blackford, Rose Hite, Phantom, C. T. Dumont, Sprey, Nashville, Clara Denning and Prima Donna; to the officers of which, the Division will ever feel grateful for their kindness. The General commanding took the J. G. Blackford at Cincinnati, for his headquarters boat, and I am sure a better selection could not have been made. The boat is almost new, and is fitted up in fine style, and the citizens of your beautiful city, may be proud to claim her as one of theirs. We found the Captain, Fred Ford, to be a man of no ordinary skill in river navigation, and a perfect gentleman throughout. To Mr. Geo. T. Hanly, the courteous and efficient clerk, we are also indebted for many favors, and in fact to all the officers and crew of the boat. Every success to them, their boat, to the Journal, and to the city of Gallipolis. H.T.G.
     M. Jeffers has sold out his interest in the Sherman House, to Mr. Jno. B. Keller, of Cumberland, Md.

     Several boats loaded with troops passed Gallipolis last week. When near the island, a soldier sitting on the guards, was crowded off into the river. He struck out boldly for the shore, and being a good swimmer, made the shore none the worse of his involuntary bath. He received transportation next day and followed his regiment.

The Gallipolis Journal
April 13, 1865

     A detachment of Lee's army numbering 110 men reached Gallipolis, on Monday night last, on board the Gen. Meigs. These deserters had not heard of Lee's surrender until reaching this post. It did not at all interfere with their appetites, judging from the manner in which they rushed the Commissary head quarters. We are informed that three or four of the party belonged to the gang that burned the B. C. Levi and captured Gen. Scammon.

     The Council elect, for the ensuing year, organized by electing R. Aleshire, President; D. S. Ford, clerk. By lot it was decided who should serve for two years. In the 1st ward, R. Aleshire, one year, D. Y. Smithers, two. In the 2d ward, Jas. Brown, one year, C. D. Bailey, two years. In the 3d ward, Henry Grayum, one year, John C. Vanden, two years. By resolution it was agreed to hold sessions at the Mayors office on Tuesday evening of each week, where all persons interested can appear and lay before them, any business pertaining to the improvement or good order of our town.

     In accordance with the Governor's proclamation, a meeting of the citizens of Gallipolis at the Mayor's office April 12, 1865, was organized by choosing Reuben Aleshire, Esq., President, and David B. Hebard, Secretary. The President then briefly stated the object of the meeting to be, to take steps to secure the observance of Friday next, in celebrating and rejoicing over the late glorious victories achieved by our army, indicating the complete triumph of patriotic devotion to Liberty and the Union, over treason and rebellion. On motion of Lieut. Gillman:

Resolved, That Friday next be observed as recommended: that the exercises commence by the ringing of all the bells in the city at 6 o'clock A.M., that the clergymen and congregations of the several churches, observe the day by suitable religious services in their respective churches at 10 1/2 o'clock A.M. That a salute of 100 guns be fired at 12 M.; that the citizens meet at the Court House at 2 P.M. for public addresses; that all the bells be again rung at 6 o'clock P.M., and a salute of 36 guns be then fired; that a grand torch light procession of all the military, different orders, societies, and citizens, generally, be formed at 7 1/2 P.M. at the corner of Second and Court streets, and then march through the principal streets of the city.
Resolved, That the citizens be, and they are hereby recommended to suspend all business, close their business houses, and join in the jubilee.
Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in both the city papers. On motion, adjourned.
     R. Aleshire,
     Pres't., D. B. Hebard, Sect'y.

The Gallipolis Journal
April 13, 1865

     On Saturday night, "the American citizens of African descent" in Gallipolis, felt themselves justified by the fall of Richmond in getting up an illumination in their quarter of our town. They did it well, and also got up several fine transparencies that were just the kind to agitate the "bile" of that class among us known as copperheads. Of course they showed their venum [sic], by throwing stones into them, and at the persons carrying them, one or two of whom we learn were severely hurt. This kind of fun might do for the barbarous age when slavery was the dominant power in the land, and Democracy its chief advocate. Under the present order of things, all such petty meanness, only indicates how deeply rooted party feeling remains, and how hard it is to "teach an old dog new tricks." The time has gone by when such cowardly attacks upon unoffending negroes, will merit anything but scorn and contempt. The Northern copperhead in his blind rage against the Union and its sable supporters, has yet to learn that fact.

     The illumination on Saturday night, was not confined wholly to Gallipolis. The residence of Mr. James Vanden, on Mount Pelah, was finely lit up and from its elevated position our citizens had an admirable view of its beauty. The dwelling of Capt. John R. Smithers, was also illuminated, but being on a level with our streets, was not visible except to passers by.

     A most brutal murder was committed at Bets' grocery in Gallipolis, on Saturday night last, by a discharged soldier named Clay, of the [blank] regiment, on the body of Mr. Henry Harmon, one of our most peaceable and inoffensive citizens. After the illumination closed, Clay, in company with some other soldiers from the Hospital, was returning to that place, and stopped at the grocery for whisky [sic], being then very much intoxicated. We are not aware that he obtained any there.—Mr. Harmon who resides on a lot almost adjoining, had been down in town with some of his children to see the illumination, and having sent the children to his house from the lower end of his lot on Second street, passed up by this grocery, where Clay and his friends were acting in a very riotous manner. How he became involved in it we are not informed. He was struck several times over the head with some instrument of sufficient weight to fracture the skull, and afterwards shot through the body, killing him instantly. He leaves a widow and six children to mourn his untimely end. He was an industrious, quiet citizen, and much respected by all who knew him. [ . . . ] The murderer is still at liberty, nor have we heard of any special efforts made to arrest him. His name is Irwin Clay, and (he) resides on Ice creek, near Keye's Mills, Lawrence county.

     The Surg. in charge of the Hospital at this post, has received orders to prepare for the reception of 800 patients, from other Hospitals. We presume they are such as are convalescent, can travel, and are moved to make room for those wounded in the late Richmond campaign. About 70 tents have already been set up, and ample accommodations are being made for our gallant boys, who we trust may soon be allowed to return to their homes.

     Rev. Stevens, Chaplain of the Hospital, designs opening a school for the benefit of the boys in that institution, and requests our citizens to furnish them with any school books they may have on hand, that are not used by their children. Any books of this kind, left at the Journal office will be promptly called for. The object is a good one, and we trust will be heartily responded to by our citizens.

Gallipolis Island for Sale
     I will sell at private sale the Island in the Ohio river fronting Gallipolis. It contains 30 acres more or less, and is protected by a belt of timber, has a rich soil under good cultivation. Its proximity to the City makes it a most desirable piece of ground for a Market garden, Cane raising, &c., &c., Will be sold on reasonable terms. Inquire opposite Pt. Pleasant of John Bryan.

The Gallipolis Journal
April 20, 1865

Guyandotte, W.Va., April 10, '65
Dear Aunt:
     Since writing the within letter this morning, things have very materially changed here. I was then as all the rest were of a sad countenance very much distressed about the order of being ready to move. All expected that we would have to move in a few days, (and we may yet). Just after I had finished the letter and stuck it in the envelope, had not sealed it yet. All at once I heard such another hollowing [sic] down at headquarters, as you never heard. I went down to see what was up, and they had just received the dispatch, announcing the surrender of Gen. Lee, with all his army and such another time as we have had here to-day, you never saw. Some got drunk, others went to shooting, and every species of rejoicing was resorted to, and now while I am writing, this evening, they have the rebel flag floating in the breeze, from our tall pole. But oh! how does she float, not in the glory and pride of the people as it once floated here, but it is unfurled to the breeze about three fourths from the top of the pole, and the Star Spangled Banner proudly floating above her. Ah aunt, how emblematical it is, of the humbled and dishonored Southern Confederacy, to see their flag, their boasted stars and bars, as she humbly plays in the breeze, all dressed in mourning, beneath the Stars and Stripes of America, and the friend of the latter, rejoicing under her folds making speeches, and some of their eyes filled with tears, when they express their thanks to God, for the great victories of our armies, and the bright prospect of a speedy and lasting peace. Ah, dear aunt, or sister, whichever you would rather I would call you, I hope the time is near at hand, when I can come home and enjoy the pleasant fireside of our neat little home, with my dear wife and children, and you and yours. Feeling that my conscience is clear, of having been a good and faithful soldier, having discharged every duty enjoined upon me as a soldier of the United States, and participated in all the hardships incident to a soldiers life. I have done my duty and have escaped thus far unharmed. I do thank God for it.

     In pursuance of the Proclamation by Gov. Brough, the 14th inst. was well observed in Gallipolis. Never before have we seen such general respect paid to any day. So far as we can learn all places of business were closed, and our citizens generally devoted the day to the purposes designated by the Governor. At 6 A.M. the bells rang out their marry [sic] chimes, which were followed by peals of cannon, that reverbrated through the Virginia hills, awakening echoes, that found a hearty response in the breast of every loyal citizen.
     At half past ten A.M., divine service was held in the Methodist and Episcopal churches. At 2 o'clock a large concourse of people assembled at the Court House. The steamer J. G. Blackford a short time previous had landed at our wharf, and it was ascertained that Brig. Gen. Raum, of Illinois, was on board, en route for Hancock's quarters at Winchester. As it was known that he had just returned from Sherman's army, and had taken an active part, in the "march of that army down to the sea," he was waited upon by the committee, and "pressed into service" as one of the speakers at the Court House. The Blackford having a large amount of Government freight to unload, that would require some delay, the General consented to address the people and did so in a manner highly gratifying to the audience. His narration of the grand march from Atlanta to Savannah was listened to with profound attention. The General appears as much "at home on the stump" as in the battle field. His scathing rebuke of Northern guerrillas [sic] as he termed them, was appropriate, and came with marked force from one who had entered the service as a Democrat from "Egypt" in Southern Illinois. He was followed by C. J. Menager, Rev. Stevens chaplain of the Hospital, and Capt. C. W. Smith, all of whom, in neat and appropriate speeches, held the audience until a late hour in the afternoon.
     At 6 P, M., the bells were again rung, and a national salute fired, under the superintendence of Lieut. Young, ordnance offices [sic] at this post. It is due to this gentleman to state that owing to his care and skill, no accident happened in his department, to mar the pleasures of the day. At 7 1/2 o'clock, the citizens again assembled with torches, transparencies, &c., and under direction of Lt. Gilman of the Trumbull Guards, marched in procession through our principal streets. Although there was no order for an illumination, yet several houses were beautifully lighted up. The grounds about the residence of Capt. A. Vance and E. D. Shepard, were beautifully decorated with colored lanterns, evincing great taste on (the) part of the ladies who prepared them.
     At a late hour the crowd still jubilant, were addressed by Capt. Phelps and Mr. Whittaker, of West Va., who were listened to with great attention and pleasure. On the whole, the day was well observed, and every thing passed off in the best possible manner, and without a single accident, or unpleasant circumstance.

The Gallipolis Journal
April 20, 1865

[Note: This appeared on the same page with the notice of the assassination of President Lincoln, and the entire page was bordered in black.]

Charleston, April 19, 1865
     Editor Journal:—Capt. Haskins commanding at Lewisburg last evening asked for terms as to surrender of all Confederate forces in Greenbrier, Monroe, and other counties, between Gauley and the Rail Road. Col. Oley has been authorized to give them the same terms, as Grant gave Lee. Echols' entire command has been furloughed for sixty (60) days. This day is being observed here with due solemnity.
     Wm. H. Nash,
     Capt. and C.S.

     Several Gallia boys of the 7th O. Cav., who have been home on furlough, as paroled prisoners, returned to Columbus on Thursday last. It is there [sic] earnest desire to be placed on guard over rebel prisoners at Camp Chase. We hope they may have their wishes granted, and an opportunity give(n) them to deal out justice to the rebels, as it was dealt to them. Just now the rebels would find the quality of that justice "not strained" but administered in its purity.

The Gallipolis Journal
May 4, 1865

     One of the most terrible steamboat disasters of modern times, occurred on Friday morning last, at about 2 o'clock on the Mississippi river, seven miles above Memphis, by which 1,400 persons lost their lives. The steamer Sultana, Capt. Mason, reached Vicksburg on the 21st, in a damaged condition and her boilers leaking badly. She lay there for repair about 30 hours, during which she took on board 1,966 paroled Union prisoners from Andersonville, making with her crew and citizen passengers 2,175 persons on board. It is not known that more than 700 escaped, and of these many are badly scalded. The scene immediately after the explosion, was fearful, and may be better imagined than described. The fact that so many brave men who had survived the horrible cruelties of rebel prisons, should almost in sight of home, meet death in its most frightful form, is heartrending. The actual loss of life is as great as might have been looked for in a pitched battle. Truly it seems as though this age of blood would never pass from us.
     We have as yet no particulars of the cause of the accident, but it may be inferred from the condition of the boat when at Vicksburg. The Sultana was built at Cincinnati in 1864, and cost $85,000. She now lies a wreck on the Arkansas shore, a monument to the cupidity of her officers, who for profit would take such a load of living freight on board a vessel, with leaking boilers. Gen. Washburn, commander at Memphis, has ordered an investigation.

     A meeting of the Ohio soldiers in the Army of the Shenandoah, was held near Winchester, Va., on the 20th of April. Col. H. J. Duval, 36th O.V. was called to the chair; Lieut. Col. L. Z. Caddot [sic], 91st O.V.I., was appointed Secretary; Chaplain Collier of the 34th, and Capt. J. M. Cunly of the 23d O.V.I. addressed the meeting. The committee through Col. B. F. Coates, 91st O.V.I., reported a preamble and resolutions, the sum of which is contained in the following:

Resolved, That we propose Brigadier General R. B. Hayes of Hamilton county as the Union candidate for the next Governor of Ohio. We advert to this movement on part of the army, merely to say that Brig. Gen. Hayes services will probably be much more valuable to the country he has done so much for, as a soldier, by occupying his seat in the next Congress, than filling the Gubernatorial chair of Ohio. Questions of immense importance will crowd upon that body. Ohio has a vital interest in the proper adjustment of them. No man in the State, understands them in a military point of view, better than Gen. Hayes.—Why then deprive the nation as well as the State, of his valuable aid. The matter should be looked at in this light, and all unnecessary complications of the Gubernatorial question, avoided so as to secure perfect harmony, between the members of the Union party both in and out of the army.

The Gallipolis Journal
May11, 1865

     The following letter from Mr. John House, late of Gallipolis, now a resident of Montana Territory, may be interesting to persons who contemplate emigrating to that region. The statements made correspond with those from other persons and may be relied upon.

Virginia City, Montana Ter., April 2, 1865
     I to-day received your welcome letter of Jan. 9th. I was truly glad to hear from the outer world once more, as we have been snowed in here for the past three months, not receiving any news from any source whatever. The snow has been twenty feet deep on the mountains, and ten in the Vallies; hence you see we could not expect much mail matter over such a country as it necessarily has to pass. This has been an exceedingly long and cold winter. The mercury has been down to thirty-eight degrees below zero several times. Notwithstanding there has been a considerable number of new digings [sic] discovered, among which are some, said to be very rich, while others will not pay for working, at the present high prices for provisions and labor. But I think in the course of a few years, they will all be worked.—Among those that are creating the most excitement is [sic], the Black Foot and Last Chance Gulches. The Black Foot Gulch empties into the little Missouri river. Last Chance Gulch empties into the Deer Lodge. These diggings turn out well from all accounts. They prospect from forty five cents to four dollars to the pan. If this is so, those Gulches will pay as well as this (Fairweather) ever did, and I believe they will. The Silver Bow, German, Confederate, Grizely, and McClellan Gulches, are all reported to pay well. There are new discoveries being made every day, and those that are being discovered now, are reported to pay the best. The Quartz Leads have created a great excitement here. There has been any amount of Leades discovered, some of which have been tested, and prove to be very rich.—Some of them have turned out as high as nine hundred dollars to the cord of quartz. Their [sic] are some five or six quartz mills in operation.—There will be more than a hundred put in operation in the course of the summer. There will be employment for all that come to this country, and they can take their choice of work, and at large wages, from five to ten dollars per day. You have no doubt often heard of the song of Nigger on the brain. It is a little different here, it is quartz on the brain.
     The cultivation of the soil is now all the talk. On all the different Ranches they are making preparations for getting in their seed. There will be several thousand acres of this golden soil tilled this season. It has been proved beyond a doubt that this is good farming country.—Good wheat and potatoes were raised here last season, besides vegetables of different kinds. I have seen as good cabbage, onions, and cucumbers as I ever saw in the States. Corn does not grow very well here on account of the dryness of the weather, during the summer. The land has all to be irrigated to make the ground produce anything. I have understood that there is machinery on the way here for a large flouring mill, which is to be erected on the Gallatin river which is sixty miles from this city. There has been better pay discovered in this Gulch this winter than ever. Should there be any of my friends who intend coming to this country this season, perhaps a little advice from one who has crossed the plains, will not come amiss. In the first place, he wants a good supply of good coarse clothing and at least one years provisions, and do not forget a good supply of sweetmeats, such as canned and dried fruits, also butter will come in good play. In fact anything that you can find in your house, you will find it will come very handy on the plains.

The Gallipolis Journal
May 11, 1865

     The Arlington Estate lately belonging to Gen. Lee, was sold for taxes in 1863, and purchased by the U. States, for national purposes. A portion of it is used as a burial ground for Union soldiers, over four thousand of whom have already been interred there. Mr. and Mrs. Custis, the former owners, and from whom the property descended to Gen. Lee in right of his wife, are buried in the same enclosure, and have splendid marble columns erected in their memory. The graves of the soldiers both white and colored are marked by white slabs, with the name and regiment. How little did Gen. Lee suppose the graves of his wife's parents would one day be surrounded by thousands of bodies of men, who perished in defence [sic] of the nation, he himself would be in arms against, and striving to overthrow. A more signal instance of retributive justice cannot be found in the annals of this war.

     Four men of the 18th O.V.I. were arrested for expressing satisfaction at the murder of Lincoln, and sentenced to be ironed at night, and in the day-time employed on the streets of Chattanooga under guard with a placard on their backs, "Assassin Sympathizers." Four citizens and two teamsters are in the same squad.

     The 7th Ohio cavalry lost 22 men by starvation in the Andersonville prison. A large proportion of these were from Gallia county.

The Gallipolis Journal
May 18, 1865

For the Gallipolis Journal
Mr. Editor:
     If I had any doubt about the rebellion being crushed, the late change of tone among the Copperheads in our township, would convince me at once, that the Confederacy was played out. As long as Jeff. Davis was at Richmond, those fellows were jolly over the news, and kept telling us "You haven't got Richmond yet." One of this stripe told me not very long since "he could cut old Abe Lincoln into inch pieces," and that he was the cause of our men being treated so bad in rebel prisons, and all such stuff. This very fellow since Lincoln's death expressed himself as very sorry "that such a good man was killed and what a glorious thing it is our men took Richmond" and all the other Copperheads from "the tub of g--ts" down to the fellow that told John Morgan "he was in favor of the Confederacy," and John told him " he was a d----d sight meaner than an abolitionist" all these Copperheads are now trying to keep very quiet and talk like Union men. Now I think it is time for Union men to stiffen up a little on these fellows. We have stood their abuse and sneers for four years past, and while we were doing all we could for our soldiers they stood by and done [sic] all they could against us. Now it is our turn and we think we will keep them just where they kept themselves all this time. The funeral of Lincoln is our funeral, and we don't want any hypocrites snivelling around, when we have heard them wishing for the same result to Mr. Lincoln for years back. We want them to hunt their holes and stay there. They have been "snakes in the grass" for years, and until we get their hides on the fence, we intend they shall remain where they have been all through the war.
     One of them said the other day "the war is over whats the use of calling us copperheads, let us be good friends again like we used to be." I told him, he had called me an Abolitionist for twenty years back, and now it was my time and because the South with the aid of the Copperheads couldn't destroy the Union, that was no sign I should be on good terms with them. I lost a son in the war and some of my neighbors lost sons, but all these Copperheads and their boys were at home safe and sound. When I think of this, my blood gets up, and I feel as if I could see every last devil of them hung. That's the way I feel about it. I don't want any Copperheads to talk to me about this war, and I think it is the case with every other Union man. And I don't think it is going to be any better when our boys get home again. They know a Copperhead by instinct and advise some of that tribe on Campaign [creek] to lay [sic] low when the boys are about. They can't be fooled about it. They know horse dung from apples and if these miserable skunks will insist on crying out "look how we apples swim" some of the dung will be sunk. That's so. I am not much of a hand at writing for a newspaper, but when any snakes are around that need skinning, I like to take a hand, and intend to make a full hand at that.
     We lost some good Union citizens out of our township because they couldn't stand the Copperhead abuse. Now if the Copperheads can't stand a little plain talk they can "git" just as fast as they please. We would rather have a decent nigger for a neighbor any time, for then we would be sure we had a loyal Union man. A man with a black face, is better in my opinion than one with a black heart. These black-hearted traitors have got to be watched and I am just the chap to do it. After I see how this reads, maybe I will try again.
     BLUE BLOUSE, Copperhead Hollow, May 10th, 1865

     Two companies of the 37th Iowa (Gray beards) under command of Major Lyman Allen have been doing guard duty at Gallipolis for several months past. In pursuance of orders to join the Regiment at Cincinnati, these companies left for that place on Monday last. During their stay, their conduct as soldiers and gentlemen, gained for them the respect of our citizens. Being composed of men over 45 years of age, they had regard to the rights of others, and while prompt and vigilant in discharge of their military duties, never forgot that as citizens of one common Country, others, not in military garb had rights of property which they were bound as honorable men to respect. We never heard any complaints on (the) part of our citizens that they were in any way annoyed or disturbed by these venerable patriots. On behalf of our citizens we tender to Major Allen and his command, their highest regard for the good order and decorum which both officers and men so carefully observed while among us, and hope that their future days may be prosperous and happy.

The Gallipolis Journal
June 1, 1865

Mr. Editor:
     Your friend "Blue Blouse" by giving the history of the Copperhead in his township, as he does in a late number of the Journal, saves me the trouble of repeating it. If he had not mentioned "Campaign" we might have applied every word of it to Raccoon, for we have the very same breed of "snakes" there, only more so. Now and then, one of them lets out on the Journal in a style that would be very painful to us if we didn't know it was like hot shot to them. In fact these fellows can't stand the truth, and the way they rip up about it shows that they feel how mean they really are. Among us they are like their master Jeff Davis. They blow and bluster, and curse like a drab, but when a Union soldier comes about, they take to their petticoats and speak off like "Mrs. Davis' mother."
     Some of them don't believe that Jeff has been taken at all, any more than they do that Booth has been killed. They all seemed to be very sorry that Lincoln was killed, but we think they will mourn much more sincerely, if Jeff stretches hemp. A good many of them talk now about the shame of striking a man when he is down &c. Well in an ordinary stand up fight this might do, if your opponent was a man of honor. But when he happens to be a murderer aiming at your life, or a thief, at your property, a little killing is justifiable, particularly if you know that if you don't kill, your chances of being killed are good. When I tap a rattlesnake or copperhead (animal I mean) that strikes at me, so as to break his back, I think it my duty to kill him outright, and not leave him to crawl off and practice his game on somebody else. Jeff Davis is a murderer and a thief, not figuratively either. He is deprived of doing present harm. Why not take security for the future by depriving him of any further ability to do the same crimes. None but traitors and copperheads will ask that he be suffered to disgrace the nation, by escaping the reward of his deeds.

     The paroled rebel soldiers from West Va., are returning to their homes and living as peaceably as their more loyal neighbors will permit. In Cabell county, very little hostility has thus far manifested itself on (the) part of the Union men toward these repentant rebs. A meeting was lately held at Barboursville, at which Judge Samuels made a speech, counselling moderation on the part of loyal, and quietness on part of those who had earned for themselves the reputation of disloyal men. In Kanawha and Putnam counties there seems to be considerable ill feeling, toward the rebels, nor is it likely to be allayed by the course adopted. [ . . . ] We well remember the Hon. Judge Summers and sundry other gentlemen from Kanawha visiting Gallipolis in May 1861, remonstrating against the troops from the North, crossing the Ohio river, on the ground that it would intensify that feeling of hostility then rampant among the aristocracy, and cause hundreds to take up arms who might otherwise remain at home. [ . . . ] The whole scheme was looked upon as a part of the same policy adopted at Richmond [ . . . ] It was disregarded, and the result is now history. [ . . . ]

The Gallipolis Journal
June 8, 1865

For the Gallipolis Journal
Mr. Editor:
     Allow us through the columns of your excellent Journal to express our sincere thanks to the friends of the Ladies Mite Society, of the M. E. Church which met at the Parsonage, Wednesday evening, May 31st, and who after spending a very pleasant evening socially, and discussing the bountiful supply of good things provided by the ladies, presented us a donation of $110, which to us was a very pleasant surprise, not having been apprised of the object of the meeting.
     J. F. WILLIAMS L. A. WILLIAMS Gallipolis, June 5.

     The following list of names of Ohio men buried on Belle Island has been furnished us by Mr. Isaac Taylor, who has just returned from a visit to that monument of rebel barbarity.
E. M. E. Maxfield, Co. G, 122d O.V.I.; Jno. Taylor, Co. B, 100th O.V.I., died August 20th, 1863; J.S.H. Speer, Co. G, 45th O.V.I., died Dec. 25th, 1863; D. Witherspoon, Co. I, 75th O.V.I., died Dec. 13th, 1863; F. Biccard, Co. A, 45th (O.V.I.), died Feb. 1864; A. J. Woodburn, Co. H, 1st Va., died Jan. 4th, 1864; J. Remple, Co. B, 1st Va., died Jan. 4th, 1864.

     A young woman by name of Ellen Sweney, aged about 18 years, committed suicide on last Friday night, by drowning in the Ohio river near the Saw Mill of Mr. W. H. Langley, in Gallipolis. She fastened a heavy stone by a piece of cord and placing the other end around her neck, made the fatal plunge which terminated her life. The river falling rapidly during Saturday and Sunday, left her body on the beach, where it was discovered by her friends on Monday morning last.—Disappointment in a love affair is assigned as a cause of the rash act.

    The U. S. Hospital at this post, still drags along slowly. The men are becoming very impatient at the long delay in being mustered out, and complain very much about the delay in obtaining descriptive lists from the Company commanders. It was reported that the whole affair would close on the 7th, but it turned out otherwise. A sale of a large amount of property will be held there on Monday next. The property consists of Bedsteads, Bedding, Tables, Chairs, and Furniture generally.

     The Mail is now carried regularly from Gallipolis to Portland. The Agent of the Dept., reached Gallipolis last week, and at once set about remedying the evil by receiving proposals for carrying the same one year. The contract was awarded to Mr. Frank L. Wood at about $2500,—he being the lowest bidder. It seems the fault after all was not so much with the Dept., as with the P.M. at the head of the route. The Dept. did refuse to pay $10 per day. but did not fix any sum under that price. The Agent, seemed very anxious to have the matter arranged, and has succeeded in doing so. Hereafter, we think there will be no cause of complaint on that route, and our subscribers may therefore expect to receive the Journal regularly or if otherwise the fault will not be with us.

     Large fleets of steamers have been passing Gallipolis, for several days, transporting soldiers from Parkersburg to Louisville and other western points, for mustering out of service. As none land, of course we are unable to learn what regiments are moving, or to what points. It is enough however to know that the gallant boys are on their way home never again we hope, to be called away from them on similar business. We have no information when any of our Gallia boys will be home.

The Gallipolis Journal
June 15, 1865

For the Gallipolis Journal
Mr. Editor:
     I have been thinking that it would be a great pity to hang Jeff. Davis under the circumstances. The Copperhead, peace Democracy will want a candidate for the Presidency in 1868, and I have no doubt would give a handsome sum for him, for that purpose. Suppose you suggest through your excellent paper, that he be put up in competition with Gen. Grant's war-horse at the next Sanitary Fair. I think he'd bring "sumthin hansom" if sold in petticoats, feathers, &c., "specially" if the showmen and copperheads are out in force.
     It seems to be understood that "Martyrs" for office is [sic] to be all the rage in that party, and a genuine one has never yet been found. McClellan was a martyr but hadn't suffered enough to arouse general sympathy. Vallandingham [sic] was a martyr, but Val. had other mean traits that were against him. But Jeff. is not only a martyr, but a martyr from principle and because he can't help himself. Val and Little Mac might both have saved themselves from martyrdom, but Jeff. can't, he's gone up "sartain;" and now if the Government will only allow him to be bid off at the next fair, and then confine him in a "Lincoln Bastile" [sic] till the fall of '68, he'd make the finest specimen of a Peace Dimocracy [sic] candidate the world ever saw, and would, no doubt, get every copperhead vote in the land. There is but one difficulty in the way, that I see at present, and, that is, that Grant's war-horse might object to the association.

     The Ohio boys are getting back as fast as transportation can be furnished. The body guard of Gen. Sherman being detachments of the 15th and 19th Reg'ts. O.V.I. reached Columbus on the 5th and were addressed by Gov. Brough in his usual style. The boys loudly applauded his remarks and then started to their barracks, the road over which they marched being literally covered with flowers, and bouquets showered on them by the ladies who thronged the sidewalks to bid them welcome.

     Major L. Z. Cadot of the 91st O.V.I., is home on short leave of absence. The Regiment are doing duty at Cumberland, and rather arduous at that. It is to be hoped the boys will soon be mustered out and allowed to return home. Few if any Ohio regiments have made a fairer record during this war, than the 91st.

     Gov. Brough has secured the transfer to the hospitals in this State of all the Ohio soldiers in the Dept's. of the East, Pennsylvania, Washington and the middle Department who are not proper subjects for muster out and unfit for duty for 30 days.

     The body of a soldier suppose(d) to be H. Gahagan, and to belong to an Illinois regiment, was found in the Ohio river at Aug. Guthrie('s), in Addison township, Gallia county, Ohio, on the 13th day of June, 1865. Coroner Wall held an inquest on the body, from which we learn that he was about 5 feet 9 inches high, dark sandy hair, dark eyes. He had on a soldiers uniform, light blue pants, dark blue dress coat. A wallet containing a recipt [sic] of Adams Express Co., dated Savannah, Georgia, Dec. 30, 1864, for a package from H. Gahagan, containing $120, addressed J. C. Rice, Washington, Ill., and 60 cents postage currency was found on the body. He was buried near Mr. Guthries. Washington, Ill. papers copy.

     A national cemetery is to be establlished at Antietam, and the Legislature of Maryland has appropriated $7,000, expecting each state whose soldiers fell in the fight to appropriate as much. A suitable lot of ten acres has been purchased on a part of the battle-field, near the town of Sharpsburg, embracing the ground occupied by General Lee as a signal station, from which the whole of the ground fought over can be viewed.

     The "Our House" has been converted into a private dwelling by its owner Mr. C. D. Bailey, and presents quite a neat and handsome appearance creditable to his good taste and liberality. Quite a number of buildings in Gallipolis are susceptible of the same improvement. The prices of material and labor are declining, and it is to be hoped the owners of dilapidated [sic] dwellings will take advantage of the decline and set their houses in order.

     Dr. James R. Bell so long and favorably known to our citizens, as connected with the Hospital at this post, but who has been on duty at the Hospital at Madison, Indiana, has returned to Gallipolis, that Hospital being in process of abandonment. It was very extensive numbering 57 wards and at one time, 3,300 patients. [ . . . ] Dr. Bell by his energy and kind attention to the soldiers under his charge, was presented with a splendid silver tea set, including $100 worth of silver spoons as a testimonial of their esteem. [ . . . ]

The Gallipolis Journal
June 29, 1865

     We are pleased to notice among the changes at this post, the presence of our worthy friend, Capt. Irwin, on the Hurricane (deck) of the steamer Gen'l. Crook. Davy has long merited such a post, and none we know of, could fill it to better advantage to the boat or profit to the Government. Witih R. Forsyth in the office, and the well known pilots, Will and Ed Johnson at the wheel, we predict a successful career for the Crook.

     Gallipolis Post Office has been designated by the Postmaster General, as a money order office, to go into operation on the 3d of July next. This will prove a great convenience to our business men, and citizens generally.

The Gallipolis Journal
July 6, 1865

The Fourth of July
     The 4th was a gala day in Gallipolis. At an early hour the booming of cannon awoke the echoes of the Virginia hills, and the sleeping population of town and country. Capt. L. C. Forsyth, A.Q.M. at this post, furnished a magnificent team of six dun horses, harnessed to a wagon for the use of the Gallipolis Band, and another fine team of four grey horses, to a wagon for the accommodation of a number of young ladies dressed in white. A procession was formed by Marshal L. Langley, Esq., assisted by Mr. W. C. Hayward, in which we noticed the Odd Fellows and Sons of Temperance in full regalia. A very large delegation of returned soldiers also took their place(s) in the line.—The procession was greatly increased by a large number of our citizens. Headed by the Band, which discoursed most excellent music, the procession marched through the principal streets, to the Academy grounds, where a stand and a large number of seats were prepared. The crowd in the grounds was estimated at about two thousand persons, whilst fully that number were scattered through the town. The exercises at the Academy commenced by singing the Doxology, "Praise God from whom all blessings flow." After which a most impressive prayer was offered by the Rev. Van Deursen, of the Presbyterian church of Gallipolis. The Declaration of Independence, prefaced by a few appropriate remarks was then read in excellent style by Rev. Thompson of the Episcopal church of Gallipolis, after which the audience was entertained by an address of great power, and eminent fitness, delivered by the Rev. Breare, of the Universalist church. The marked attention paid the speaker by the vast audience, many of whom were obliged to stand during its delivery, is the best evidence of their appreciation of it.
[ . . . ] A short and sturring [sic] address when then delivered by Capt. C. C. Aleshire of the 18th Ohio Battery, who was called out for the occasion.—The procession was re-formed and marched to the Public Square, where a dinner was set out in the Commissary building that beggars description. Twelve tables running the whole length of that large building, fairly groaned under the load of rich viands placed on them, by fair hands, who were ready to wait upon the brave and gallant soldiers who years ago went out from among us to fight in defence [sic] of their country. [ . . . ] Cannons at intervals were fired and we are pleased to learn that in this department all passed off without accident.
     The day was well observed by our citizens and business men; all drinking houses, or other places of business were closed, and remained so during the day. [ . . . ] The festivities closed by a grand Ball at Robinson's Hall, under the auspices of Capt. Forsyth, Maj. Webb and other gentlemen. It is enough to say of it that it passed off to the entire satisfaction of all present, a result, certain to follow, when such gentlemen are at the head

The Gallipolis Journal
July 13, 1865

     We publish the following under the impression that the soldier drowned resided in this section of (the) country. Charles Hunt and William Polly are from Jackson county, we are informed, and the deceased may be also.

Soldier Drowned, Warsaw, Ky., July 2
     Eds. Gazette: On Friday, the 20th ult., the body of a dead man was found in the Ohio river, near the Kentucky shore, and about two miles above Warsaw, in Gallatin county. A jury having been summoned, a verdict was rendered, from which (it) appears that the name of the deceased was James McCulgain, who, it seems, was a Federal soldier belonging to the 173d O.V.I., and came to his death by accidental drowning. He had on a full suit of Federal soldier's uniform, and the only articles of value found on his person were fifteen cents in currency and a promissory note, executed at the camp of the above named regiment, at Johnsonville, Tenn., dated March 3, 1865, payable to the order of Charles Hunt, and signed by William Polly, for the sum of $35. This note was transferred by the said Charles Hunt to James McCulgain, which is presumed to be the name of the deceased. Any information desired by the friends of this unfortunate soldier can be had by addressing Jacob Carver, Coroner for Gallatin county. The corpse has been properly interred near here.      X.Q.M.

The Gallipolis Journal
July 20, 1865

    In company with a gentleman from Pittsburg, of large experience in the oil business, a thorough geologist, and of scientific attainments, we visited the oil wells on Campaign creek, in Gallia county, known as the Martindale wells, one being sunk by citizens of Gallipolis, the other by citizens of Cheshire township. The oil is there. Of this there is no doubt. The gentleman above alluded to, pronounces it of a very fine quality, not exceeded by any in the market, and that it will be found in paying quantities, at a depth not less than 600 feet. If the parties however decide to develop it at once, they should procure engines and suitable tools, and go to work with a will. Boring for oil, is at best a dull and cheerless business, and unless carried on with energy and determination "to find oil or China" little will be done. Our friends have every prospect of success, if they go to work at the business in the right way.
     We also in company with the same gentleman, made a short visit to the farm of Dr. Naret near Buffalo, on Kanawha. After a careful geological survey of the ground, he is satisfied oil exists plentifully in that quarter and that the prospects are as favorable as any other part of West Virginia, or the neighborhood of Marietta, all of which he has carefully examined. Hicks, VanZant & Co., are now sinking two wells in the vicinity of Buffalo, with good prospects of success. The one is of the depth now of 300 feet, the other about 200 feet. Oil will yet be found on the great Kanawha, as abundant as at Parkersburg.
     Many persons suppose the oil business an exploded humbug. Never was there a greater error. The world is not retrograding. The oil has become indispensably necessary to the comfort of life. It has been found heretofore. It will continue to be found, and as the business comes to be better understood, it will be more generally successful. That so many persons without experience or capital fail in it, furnishes no proof that others, possessed of both will also fail. The oil business must hence prove profitable. The arts and sciences require its use in too many various ways, to admit of it being abandoned.

The Gallipolis Journal
July 27, 1865

     The 173d O.V.I. has been mustered out of service. Two companies, I and B, were from Gallia county. After it was organized in the fall of 1864, some of our patriotic ladies purchased a fine regimental flag, and presented it to the regiment. Upon its being mustered out of service, the officers decided to return the flag to the fair donors, as best entitled to have it in charge. Col. J. T. Hurd was selected to return it, which he did in a public assembly called for this purpose in Gallipolis, on Thursday last, accompanied by an address. We have not been furnished with a copy of the address for publication, which will account for its nonappearance this week.

     Burglars are still plenty in Gallipolis. A wounded soldier lodging at the house of Thomas Brown, on 4th street, was robbed on Tuesday night of forty-seven dollars, which was all the money he had.—The burglar entered through a window, took the money out of the soldiers pocket book, and decamped in the same way. Our citizens will find it to their interest to be on the lookout for these scamps, who thus far seem to have eluded the vigilance of the police.

The Gallipolis Journal
August 3, 1865

    We commence this week, our record of the brave and gallant soldiers from Gallia county, who died in the service or after discharge. For particulars, we must of course rely upon the friends of the deceased soldiers. We trust they will send us a short notice of their friends which we will put in shape for publication. There is no charge attending it whatever, and we hope that no one will decline to furnish the requisite particulars. Our list each week, will embrace a column at least, and more if space will admit.
     Major John R. Blessing 91st Reg't. O.V.I. joined the Regiment on its original organization in 1862, and died April 10, 1862, leaving a widow and children. Major Blessing was one of our best citizens and a man who did honor to the service, and his country. He lived and died a pure and spotless patriot and christian gentleman. He was a citizen of Perry township.
     Capt. James H. Niday Co. B, 91st O.V.I. was probably the first man who commenced active recruiting for the three years service. His personal popularity and christian virtue enabled him to raise a company in a shorter space of time than ever known since. More men offered to join than he could accept. He went into active service and so remained until his death, which took place at Fayetteville, West Va., on the 21st of April 1864. He died unmarried, and aged 25 years. He enlisted from Gallipolis.
     Harvey W. Niday, his brother, was also a member of Co. B, 91st O.V.I. He was known as a good soldier and a brave man, and was killed in action at Winchester, Va., on the 19th of September 1864, aged ___years. He enlisted from Harrison township and was unmarried.
     James L. Donnelly volunteered in Co. L, 7th O.V.C. August, 1862, aged 30 years, resided in Springfield township, captured at Rogersville, Tenn., Nov. 6th 1863. Died 11th of August 1864, in Andersonville prison. Leaves a widow and one child.
     John P. Donnelly enlisted in Co. F, 33d O.V.I., brother of James L. Aged 18 years, resident of Springfield township, taken prisoner at Chickamauga 19th Sept. 1863, and died in Danville prison on the 11th of April, 1864, unmarried.
     Charles W. Donnelly, of Springfield township, and brother of James L. and John P. Donnelly, volunteered in Co. D, 179th O.V.I. at the age of 18, on the 6th of August, 1864, and died at Nashville, Tenn., on the 14th of December 1864. The three soldiers were sons of James Donnelly, deceased, late of Springfield township, Gallia county, Ohio, where their widowed mother Mrs. Diantha Donnelly still resides.
     Joseph A. Donnelly
, another son and brother of the above deceased soldiers, enlisted in Co. L, 7th O.V.C. in August 1862, captured in Sept. 1863 on a raid and lodged in Castle Thunder at Richmond, which he escaped by tunnelling [sic] , joined his Reg'ment and mustered out with it, and now lives with his bereaved mother in Springfield township. We note the name of Jos. A. Donnelly in this connection, to show the complete family record. Few if any families in this county can show a more brilliant one, or give greater evidences of loyalty and devotion to the cause of their country.

Steamer Gen. Crook, near Wheeling, W. Va., July 23
     R. L. Stewart: We the undersigned officers of the 1st New York V. V. C., herewith tender our thanks to the Capt. David Irwin, and clerk, Robert A. Forsyth, of the steamer Gen. Crook, for their courteous treatment and gentlemanly conduct, whilst conveying the regiment from Camp Piatt, W. Va., to Wellsville, Ohio, on our way homeward, and feel it our duty to recommend these officers to the public, as an especial expression of the high regard we feel towards them which we will ever cherish. We hope that prosperity in business and happiness, will accompany them in their journey through life. [Followed by 19 signatures of New York officers.]

     A grey mare stolen from Mr. William Hicks, on Kanawha, was found by him in the stable of Holt & Viney in Gallipolis, having been purchased by Mr. Holt from an unknown party. She was at once given up and Holt loses his money. It is very unsafe to buy such property these days from strangers. Horse thieves are too plenty just now for honest men to prosper by such speculations.

    Quite a lively time was witnessed at our wharf last week. The steamboats Lizzie C. Hamilton and Victress, are engaged in the trade between this port and Syracuse, and as usual a little spice of opposition connected with it. On Friday the Victress came in loaded with passengers, on a free trip from Syracuse and other points to Gallipolis and return. On Saturday, the Lizzie C. Hamilton, made her appearance not only loaded to the guards with people, but towing two barges also filled with passengers. She carried besides a fine band of music. It seemed as though all the towns and villages from Syracuse to this port had emptied their population on these crafts. They crowded our streets, they crowded the groceries, stores, shops, in fact crowded into every place where there was anything to eat, or sell. Captain Hamilton probably made nothing by the trip. Our merchants and grocery men could well afford to pay for such a trip once a week. We thought so at the time and believe they could not more profitably invest $50, than by affording the citizens of Pomeroy, Middleport, Sheffield, and Syracuse, a free ride to visit Gallipolis and purchase their goods.


That the crossing of Second and State streets, is calculated to produce a violation of the third
That the pond between 2d and Front streets in the upper end of town, is more profitable to
     physicians than the tax payers.
That economy in the administration of public affairs, is a rare virtue.
That the spirit of enterprise manifested by the city council, is worthy of admiration.
That those that fear they have attempted more than they can successfully achieve, are likely to
     be disappointed, unless winter should set in before January 1866.
That Bailey and Edwards' soda fountain is "a mighty nice thing" for young folks.
That Moch's wine and Kuhn's ale are "ditto" for old folks.
That the "mite societies" of the several churches are good institutions for the "mitees" but "only
     so so" for the "mitors."
And that, on the whole, Gallipolis as a city of the second class is,—what do you say reader?

The Gallipolis Journal
August 24, 1865

Record of Soldiers Enlisting from Gallia co., Ohio who Died in the Service in which Co. and Reg't.

John Grandstaff aged 18 years. Enlisted from Walnut township 26th of August, 1863 in Co. B, 91st O.V.I. and was killed at the battle of Winchester, Va., on the 19th of September 1864. Unmarried.
James Cotton aged 22 years. Enlisted from Walnut township September 1861, in Co. I, 18th Reg't. O.V.I., died in Hospital at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 15th, 1862. Unmarried.
Elisha Cotton aged 23 years, private in Co. I, 36th O.V.I. enlisted from Greenfield township Aug. 1861, re-enlisted in February 1864, as a veteran, died 3d March 1865 at Gen. Hospital Baltimore. Unmarried.
John Swick aged 22 years, enlisted in Co. I, 173d O.V.I. Aug. 11th 1864; died at Nashville, Tenn., 30th of Jan. 1865 from measles. Unmarried.
William McQuiston, aged 24 years, enlisted from Morgan township Aug. 1864, died at home on 15th July, 1865, from Chronic diarrhea. Unmarried.
Robert Munage aged 26, enlisted from Morgan township in Aug. 1864, died at home on the day after his return, 10th July 1865. Leaves a widow and five children.
William S. Morrison, aged 18 years, enlisted in Co. L, 7th O.V.C. 29th Aug. 1862 from Gallipolis township. Captured Nov. 6, 1863, at Rogersville, Tenn. Held as prisoner until Dec. 8th, 1864, died in Hospital at Annapolis, Md., on his way home from prison, Dec. 24th, 1864.
George B. Ewing, aged 35, enlisted from Huntington township in Co. I, 173d O. V. I. in August 1864, died 12th Jan. 1865, leaving a widow and three children.
Martin Swick, aged 37 years, enlisted from Morgan township in Co. I, 173d O.V.I. in Aug. 1864, died 3d February, 1865, from Typhoid fever at Nashville, Tenm. Leaves a widow and three children.
William W. James, enlisted from Perry township 5th July 1863 in Co. H, 1st O.H.A., died at Knoxville, Tenn., 25th of April 1864, from small pox. Leaves a widow and five small children.
David L. Morton enlisted from Clay township, in the 18th O.V.I. for 3 years in the spring of 1861. Served out his time with credit and in 1862, enlisted in Co. B, 91st O.V.I. for 3 years, was killed at the battle of Winchester, Va., 19th Sept. 1864, aged 23 years. He was a model soldier and died unmarried.
John Swisher, aged 28, enlisted from Cheshire township, in Co. B, 91st O.V.I. 9th Aug. 1862, for three years, was wounded at the battle of Winchester the 19th ahd died 21st September 1864. Unmarried.
Samuel L. Wood enlisted from Gallipolis, in Co. G, 18th O.V.M. for three months service, at the age of 17, served his time and enlisted in Co. B, 56th O.V.I. in Dec. 1861 in which Co. and Reg't. he re-enlisted as a veteran, Dec. 16th 1863. Wounded in the attack on the steamer John H. Warner, on Red river, Arkansas on the 5th, and died on the 19th of May, 1864, unmarried. No braver, better soldier left Gallia county, than Samuel L. Wood

The Gallipolis Journal
August 24, 1865

     Our esteemed friends Captains Blazer and Dale, have gone to work the right way. They have commenced business as Grocers, and if they pursue it, in the straight forward conscientious manner, they contended with rebels the past four years, success is certain. Their record as soldiers is one they may well be proud of. The have proved themselves worthy the name of a soldier. Their country having no longer any need for their service in that capacity, they at once go to work like honest citizens to gain a livelihood by their own industry, instead of spending their time vilifying and slandering those they know to have stood by them during the war. We trust our citizens will extend to Captains Blazer and Dale a full share of their patronage.

     Removal. Our enterprising Furniture Dealers and Undertakers, J. S. A. & R. Skees, have removed their Sales room to Capt. Robinson's building, lower side Public Square, upstairs, where they have opened out a large New Stock of Furniture, under the name and styles of S. A. Skees. Undertaking in all its branches given particular attention. The workshop will still remain at the old Stand on Second street.

The Gallipolis Journal
August 31, 1865

     The Union Senatorial Convention met in Gallipolis on the 23d inst., and selected as the candidate of the Union party for this District, composed of the counties of Gallia, Meigs and Lawrence, the Hon. Joseph Bradbury, of Gallipolis. The Union majority in the district will hardly fall short of 4,000, so that Mr. Bradbury's election is tolerably certain. As a member of the Legislature from Gallia, his course for the past four years has been characterized by an open, honest opposition to the rebel cause, and a firm and decided advocacy of every measure calculated to benefit the soldier or his family.

The Gallipolis Journal
September 14, 1865

Record of Soldiers Enlisting from Gallia Co., Ohio who Died in the Service

Henry Hazlett, aged 16 years, enlisted from Clay township in Co. I, 36th O.V.I., 22 Dec., 1862, killed at Chickamauga, 19th Sept. 1863, unmarried.
John W. Swanson, aged 21 years, enlisted from Raccoon township, in Co. M, 7th O.V.C., and died of Typhoid Pneumonia, near Somerset, Kentucky, 19th May, 1862, unmarried.
Willian Henry Reeves, aged 23, enlisted from Gallipolis, in Co. G, 4th West Va. Infy., July 1, 1861, and died at Larkensville, Alabama, of Chronic Diarrhea, Feb. 6th, 1864.
Henry S. Amos, aged 27 years, enlisted from Addison township, in Co. G, 117th O.V.I., died in Hospital at Covington, Ky., 6th March, 1863. Leaves a widow and two children.
Curtis Bradbury, aged 20 years, Orderly Sergt. Co. H, 4th West Va. V.I., enlisted from Cheshire township, Sept. 1861, wounded at the battle of Vicksburg, June 2d, 1863, unmarried; also served three months in 18th O.V.M.
Geo. W. Bowman, aged ___years, enlisted in Oct., 1861, from Springfield township, in Co. A, 56th O.V.I., and killed in action at Port Gibson, Mississippi, May 1st, 1863, leaving a widow and one child.

     The following list of deserters from draft in Gallia county, Ohio, who have not been arrested, has been furnished us by the Provost Marshal of the 11th District. It may be, that some of the persons named entered the service as volunteers, not being aware that they were drafted. If there should be any such, and they will acquaint us with the fact, it will give us pleasure to make the correction.

OHIO TOWNSHIP.—Nehemiah Hall, Silas B.Ellis, Wm. G. Parmley, John L. Donthard, John Mooney, William Babel
SPRINGFIELD TOWNSHIP.—John Graham, James Jones, Michael George, Josiah Murphy
RACCOON TOWNSHIP—Daniel H. Davis, Whitfield Cossens, Samuel Williams, Madison Shields, Humphrey Allen
GREENFIELD TOWNSHIP—James White, Michael Symmes, James Brown
PERRY TOWNSHIP—David J. Jones, Daniel W. Prose, Thomas B. McLead
WALNUT TOWNSHIP—Calvin Burgiss, Silas Tipton, Andrew Canterberry, J. K. Bostick, John B. Queen, John L. Redden, George W. Stewart, James Waddell, Monnel Harmon, James Newbon
MORGAN TOWNSHIP—Albert James, John C. Furguson, Silas Denny, James Bennet, Wyatt Morley, Joseph Coleman, Francis C. James
HARRISON TOWNSHIP—Andrew Diggins, Orville H. Haskins, John L. Harbour, John H. Strait, David Stewart, Asa Johnson, Daniel W. Staton, William Harbour
ADDISON TOWNSHIP—Alex Scott, Abram Edwards, William Shelshine
HUNTINGTON TOWNSHIP—Daboney Douglass, Hiram Foster, James C. Davis
GUYAN TOWNSHIP—James Robinson, David K. Hazelin
CHESHIRE TOWNSHIP—Robert F. Griffis, Squire J. Roush, John Wright
[The Ohio law concerning these cases was passed by the General Assembly on March 26, 1865, and is quoted here.]

We received a letter from our friend Jno. C. Porter, 1st Lieut. Co. G, 195th O.V.I., now on duty at Alexandria, Va. He says: "We have received the Union ticket put in nomination by the Union Convention of Old Gallia. It gives the voters of Co. G, universal satisfaction. That sterling patriot Col. Montgomery, will get every vote in Co. G, from Gallia county. We do not expect to be home in time to vote, but we will give the Union ticket a hoist wherever we may be." That's the way soldiers talk generally. They know "who's who."

Mr. Editor:
     I was a private in Capt. C. C. Aleshire's company in the three months service. At the time of enlistment, Luther Vance took my name down, and I thought he was to be Captain. He often called the roll, and told us he was going along, and his name was called out too. How it come [sic] he didn't go I can't tell, unless it was because both gentlemen couldn't be Captain. How did he get off? Was he a deserter? I never heard your name called on any roll. Yet they say you deserted. I did hear his name. Now why didn't he go? I have some good things to say about that three months service. Now that the Captain is a candidate on the Copperhead ticket, it's all fair, I guess, to let it out.

     We omitted to notice in our last issue, the muster out of the 2d Regt., O. H. A. The members of Co. F, of this county, are again at home and in their quiet, gentlemanly deportment as citizens, show that they have been good soldiers. Capt. E. S. Aleshire, and Lieuts. Hebard and Baer, look as though the service they have been in for two years past, has been passtime only. As citizens we welcome them again to their homes and trust the future has in store for them, that prosperity and success which their manly bearing and social qualities deserve.

     BURGLERS [sic] ABOUT. On Friday night last, some scoundrels entered the Grocery store of Messrs. C. & A. Henking, in Gallipolis, by heaving up the iron grating over one of the cellar windows in the back yard, and entering the cellar, passed into the store by the hatch way. About $40 of change left in the drawer was taken, and no doubt sundry other articles not discernible in so large a stock as the firm generally keep(s) on hand. This is one of the boldest attempts to rob, we have known in Gallipolis, and should prove a warning to our business men, not to relax their caution or lessen their efforts to guard against such scoundrels.

The Gallipolis Journal
September 21, 1865

Record of Soldiers Enlisting from Gallia Co., Ohio, who Died in the Service

Mr. R. L. Stewart:—Sir:
     The following is the record of soldiers in Co. G, 4th Va. Vol. Inf't., who enlisted from Gallia county, O. and died in the service.

Charles L. Waugh, private, aged 25, enlisted Aug. 5th, 1861, from Guyan township, died March 12th, 1862 of consumption—unmarried.
Martin S. Elliot, Corporal, enlisted July 28th, 1861, from Guyan township, died of chronic diarrhea, at Milikins, La., May 28th, 1863, unmarried.
Jesse C. Saunders, Musician, aged 20, enlisted July 18th, 1861, from Guyan township, died of chronic diarrhea at St. Louis, Mo., June 29th, 1863—unmarried.
Franklin E. Backus, Private, age 22, enlisted July 4th, 1861, died of chronic diarrhea at Wheeling, W. Va., Aug. 19th, 1864—unmarried, leaving a widowed mother.
Merida Farley, Private, aged 22, enlisted Aug. 4th, 1861, from Guyan township, killed at Vicksburg, Miss., May 19th, 1863—unmarried.
Hezikiah H. Angel, Private, aged 31, enlisted July 22th, 1861, from Guyan township, killed at Vicksburg, Miss., May 19th, 1863, leaving a wife and two children.
Charles W. Farley, Private, aged 24, enlisted Aug. 4th, 1861, from Guyan township, died of chronic diarrhea at Camp Sherman, Miss., Aug. 24th, 1863, leaving a widow and two children.
Robert Minor, Private, age 27, enlisted July 3d, 1861, from Perry township, died of chronic diarrhea at Young's Point, La., April 3d, 1863—unmarried.
Walter Guard, Corporal, age 22, enlisted July 21st, 1861, from Gallipolis, killed at Snicker's Ferry, July 18th, 1864—unmarried.
Isaac N. Kitterman, Private, age 22, enlisted July 25th, 1861 from Guyan township, killed at Snicker's Ferry, Va., July 18th, 1864—unmarried, leaving a widowed mother.
Wm. P. Mowry, Private, age 23, enlisted July 21st, 1861, from Guyan township, killed by accident at Cumberland, Md., Jan. 1st, 1865—unmarried, leaving a widowed mother.
Charles Haskins, Private, aged 18, enlisted Aug. 4th, 1861, from Guyan township, died at Memphis, Tenn., of consumption, July 25th, 1863, unmarried, leaving a widowed mother.
William H. Reeves of Gallipolis, and William H. Livesay have been previously noticed in this list.

R. L. Stewart, Esq.
     In the Journal of last week a commission appears signed Patriot. In this article injustice is done me, and I respectfully ask that you publish this note in your paper. In 1860 I accepted the position of Capt. and A.D.C. on the staff of Brig. Gen. R. A. Constable, O.V. Militia, and was qualified as such. My commission bears date (I think) in July or August 1860.
     During the latter part of 1861, I was ordered to report at Constable's Head Quarters at Athens, Ohio, for duty. I proceeded to Pomeroy and reported by telegraph; was ordered to return to Gallipolis and enlist men whose orders had been sent me by a special messenger. In returning to Gallipolis I found Col. Wm. H. Young (at that time a staff officer of Constable) with all the necessary orders and instructions for my guidance. In pursuance of these orders, I went to work recruiting men for three months, and in all I operated strictly under orders from my superior officer. It was known to every man who enlisted that I was an officer acting in the discharge of duty. I was repeatedly solicited by some of the men to accept a position in the Company. My answer was (words hidden by ink blot) the office I did it was impossible, but that I intended going in the field—if not in the position I then occupied, in some other. It was then supposed that the troops being organized in this district would be commanded by General Constable. I retained command of the company until officers were elected; reported to Constable, and as soon as it was known that he would not go in the field in the position he then occupied. I proceeded to enlist a Company for the three years service, and was mustered in as its Captain, and at the date of my muster out, had served upward of three and a half years in the army.
     Very Respectfully,
     J. L. Vance

Mr. Editor:
     As Capt. C. C. Aleshire, is now a candidate for office, I deem it proper, that the people should know, what sort of a man he is. I was a member of his company, in the three months service, and recollect, that, at the organization of the company, he solicited us to give him a position, and accordingly, we elected him Captain of the company. I also remember, very distinctly, when we left Gallipolis, on board of the Science, he changed his demeanor toward us, for the idea of being Captain, inflated him to such an extent, that he positively refused us permission to eat at the same table with him. At Parkersburg he drew blankets for us but retained them for his own especial benefit, something near a month, before he distributed them to the company. The great majority of the company, deeply regretted that they had ever placed any confidence in the fellow, and if we had known him, as well, before we elected him Captain, as we know him now, we would have kept him a private in the rear ranks, where he ought to have been, unless he could have crept out like J. L. Vance did. I presume the Captain would like very much, to get the support of the remainder of his old Company, but we can't see it. I have yet to find the man, who served under him, in the three months, or the three years service, that will vote for him at the approaching election. In the Journal of last week, I noticed a communication, signed Patriot, I am not aware that I know the author, but I do know he "wrote the words of truth and soberness" and I heartily endorse every word of it.

To Officers and Soldiers who have been connected with the 4th Va. Infantry Volunteers:
     All officers and men who have been connected with the 4th Va. Infantry Volunteers are requested to meet at Pt. Pleasant, West Virginia, on Wednesday, September 27th, 1865, at 1 o'clock P.M. Matters of importance will be brought before the meeting and a large attendance is requested. J. L. Vance, late Lt. Col.; Henry Grayum, late Maj.; Wm. Grayum, late Capt.; J. W. Dale, late Captain September 13, 1865

     The body of a man whose name, from papers on the body, is supposed to be John Harden, was found in the Ohio river at this place, on Saturday week last. Coroner Wall held an inquest on the body, when a verdict of accidental drowning was rendered.

     A dinner will be given the soldiers of Harrison township at the farm of Maj. John Leaper in that township on Saturday next. We urge the friends in the several townships to get up meetings of this kind before the election. Ohio soldiers have been so long absent from home, these re-unions will serve to show them who are their friends, and where their true interests truly lie.

     Mr. John McCormick having declined, We are authorized to announce the name of Lieut. J. Lasley of Cheshire, as a candidate for the office of county Surveyor. Lieut. Lasley was wounded at the battle of Pittsburg landing, is well qualified and will make an excellent office(r).

     W. G. Parmley of Ohio township, who is reported to us by the Provost Marshal as a deserter produces a certificate from the Board of Enrolment [sic], that on the 9th day of Jan. 1865 he furnished an acceptable substitute, not liable to draft. The business of the Provost Marshal's office of the 11th District seems to have been somewhat mixed. Mr. Parmley's case is a very clear one and admits of no doubt that he did his duty as a good citizen.

     The name of Thomas B. McLeod of Perry township, was furnished us by the Provost Marshal, as a deserter from the draft. We are credibly informed that Mr. McLeod has an honorable discharge from the U. S. service, as private in the 1st Nebraska Inft. and was engaged in the battles of Blackwater, Shiloh, and Fort Donellson, and that he removed to California in May, prior to the draft.

The Gallipolis Journal
September 28, 1865

Record of Soldiers Enlisting from Gallia Co., Ohio, who Died in the Service

Nicholas Kyre enlisted in Co. C., 173d O.V.I., Aug. 20th, 1864, and died at Camp Johnsonville, Tenn., of chronic diarrhea March 12th, 1865, aged 20 years—unmarried.
Reuben Martin, aged 27, enlisted from Harrison township in Co. L, 7th O.V.C., 1st Sept., 1862, and was killed at Ebenezer Church in Alabama, on the 1st (of) April, 1865—unmarried.
John Thevenin, aged 20, enlisted from Harrison township, in August, 1861. Captured at Chickamauga 19th Sept., 1863, and died at Wilmington, N.C., on his way home from prison, 10th March 1865—unmarried.
Hilas M. Holcomb, aged 21 years, private Co. K, 60th O.V.I., volunteered from Huntington township, Gallia county, Ohio, on the 24th day of March, 1862, taken prisoner at Harper's Ferry on the 15th Sept., 1862, and died in Hospital at Camp Douglas, Ill., on the 16th Oct., 1862 of chronic diarrhea—unmarried.
S. R. Bickel, aged 33, private in Co. M, 7th O.V.C., enlisted in Green township, 2d September, 1862, taken prisoner the 6th of November, 1863, and died at Andersonville prison, Ga., May 13th, 1864. Leaves a wife and two children.
Francis M. Wheelbarger, aged 24 years, enlisted Sept. 1861, in Co. A, 56th O.V.I. Died in April 1863, in the U.S. Hospital at St. Helena, Ark.—unmarried.
Emmons Corwin Rose, aged 22 years, enlisted in August, 1861, in Co. B, 35th O.V.I., was killed at the battle of Missionary Ridge, 25th November, 1863—unmarried.
Jacob Fox, aged 20 years, enlisted in Co. C, 173d O.V.I., in September, 1864. Died at Johnsonville, Tennessee, March 3d, 1865—unmarried.

Wm. P. Small
, enlisted in Co. I, 36th O.V.I., June 8, 1862, transferred to V.R.C. April 6, 1864, honorably discharged Jan. 24th, '65, wounded at Chickamauga Sept. 19th, 1863, through both thighs.

[There was no death date given for Wm. P. Small.]
Mr. Editor:
     Col. Vance, in reply, to a communication signed Patriot, says: "It was known to every man who enlisted that I was an officer, acting in the discharge of duty." But when was it known? If my memory serves me correctly, it was not known to any man, until a number of men, sufficient at least, to organize the company, had been recruited. But even admitting for the moment, that "it was impossible" for him to go with us, and that "it was known to every man" in the company. Why, then, did he, at roll call, suffer his name to be called, especially if it was not on the roll, and more especially, at the same time, when he had "command of the company?" Was his name on the roll, or was it called, when it was not there, with a view of deceiving us? I presume the Col. knows for he frequently called the roll while he "retained command of the company." As for myself, I have no desire to "do him injustice," nor is it my purpose to do so, but my impression is now, that his name was on the roll, and after the organization of the company, Orderly S. Wescott erased it, therefrom. But if I am not mistaken, in names, the Colonel is not the only candidate, on the Democratic ticket, that failed to "go in the field" with us. There is also, one Benjamin Mackall who enlisted in our company and is "well known,"especially to the members of Co. G, not, however as an "estimable man," who would "make a careful, and judicious county officer," but as the man who deserted us, at Gallipolis, and run [sic] off to Iowa.

The Gallipolis Journal
October 5, 1865

[Henry Wirtz had been the head administrator of the Andersonville prison. This story refers to his trial in Washington DC after the war. He was convicted of conspiracy and murder and hanged.]

Wirz [Wirtz] Assailed by an Ohio Matron
     Yesterday, as Wirz was on his way from the Court room to the old Capitol, a respectably dressed lady, between fifty and sixty years old, who had been waiting for the opportunity, asked the guard if that was the Andersonville [sic]. On receiving an affirmative answer, she, in a frenzy of passion, endeavored to strike him with an umbrella, saying "You wretch! you butcher! you murdered my son at Andersonville." Failing to reach him, she seized a brick, and implored the guard to let her at him. She was with some difficulty restrained and the prisoner conveyed to his quarters. It seems that the old lady was an Ohio woman, who had come here to get back pay for her sons, all of whom had belonged to the army. One was killed, one murdered at Andersonville, another rendered hopelessly insane by his sufferings in the same slaughter pen, and one only returned home at the close of the war.

     George W. Eachus of Co. C, 195th O.V.I. is at home on furlough, and will remain until the 18th inst. Any of the friends of members of his company who desire to send packages to them, can have them forwarded by leaving them at Mr. John Hallidays in Gallipolis, before that date.

For the Gallipolis Journal, A WORD TO THE SOLDIER
     Comrades you have again returned to the peaceful pursuits of life. The clangor of arms are [sic] heard no more in our land, but the true soldier is never caught sleeping. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. Our work is not done. We must perpetuate by the ballot, the results achieved, by the sword. To do less, the blood of our fallen comrades would cry out from the ground against us. There are two parties in the field claiming our votes. To which shall we give our ballots? Your answer would be to the deserving, but as we can only judge the future by the past, we will inquire what are the past records of the parties. First what is the record of the self-styled Democracy? Delaware, New Jersey, and Kentucky, all under the control of this Democracy, have refused to ratify the Constitutional amendment prohibiting forever slavery in the United States. Is this honestly accepting the results of the war? We think not. The Union party wherever they had control ratified the Constitutional amendment, and this would now be the law of the land, but for the opposition of this Democracy. This is one of the issues we have to meet. Again the doctrine of State(s') rights. The rebel States made that one of their issues against the Government. We thought we buried that with the rebellion but with peace the Democracy are [sic] are trying to breathe new life into its putrified carcass. We pass by their unpatriotic course during the war and come to the candidates. We honor Gen. Morgan's character as a soldier, then why not vote for him? We reply, when Gen. Morgan became a convert to the peace Democracy, he deserted us and that Government he swore to uphold. For this reason (if no other) we cannot support him. Gen. Cox has been at all times a consistent supporter of the Government, and is yet. For this reason we will support him. The same reasoning will apply to our county ticket. We honor the true soldier but despise the renegade. Comrades when you see resolutions passed by this peace Democracy applauding you, recollect Judas betrayed the Master with a kiss.
     ONE ARM,
     Vinton, O.

The Gallipolis Journal
October 12, 1865

Record of Soldiers Enlisting from Gallia Co., Ohio, who Died in the Service

Lewis E. Holcomb, aged 22 years, enlisted in Co. L, 7th Ohio Cavalry, from Gallipolis. Captured at Rogersville, Tenn., 6th Nov., 1863, taken to Bell(e) Isle, thence to Andersonville prison, where he died of Scurvy and Diarrhea Aug. 1st, 1864; unmarried.
Grasson M. Cole, aged 22, enlisted from Gallipolis in the three months service. On Nov. 6th, 1862, enlisted as sergent [sic] in Co. L, 7th Ohio Cavalry. Promoted to Lieut., and was killed at Ebenezer Church, Alabama, 1st April, 1865; unmarried.
Joseph Henry, enlisted from Harrison township in Co. L, 7th Ohio Cavalry. Captured at Rogersville, Tenn., 6th Nov., 1863, and died at Andersonville prison of Diarrhea 13th May, 1864, leaving a wife and six children.

     The name of David Stewart of __________ township was furnished us by the Provost Marshal of the 11th District, as a deserter from the draft. Mr. Stewart produces to us a discharge from Co. H, 32d O.V.I. showing that he served honorably from 30th of Sept., 1864, date he was drafted, up to 11th of July, 1865, when he was honorably discharged by reason of Gen. Order of War Dep't. We are pleased to make this correction in justice to a good soldier and an honest man.

The Gallipolis Journal
October 19, 1865

Record of Soldiers Enlisting from Gallia Co., Ohio, who Died in the Service
Jacob Johnson enlisted in the 91st O.V.I. August 15th, 1862, in Co. A, was in the service two years, and was killed at Harper's Ferry Aug. 25th, 1864, leaving a wife and two children.
George W. White of Springfield township, enlisted in Co. B, 91st O.V.I. Aug. 1862, died at home July 1863, aged 21, leaves a widow.
John White of Springfield township, enlisted in Co. D, 23d O.V.I. March 1864, killed in battle at Flattop Mountain, May 9th, 1864, aged 18, unmarried.
Geo. W. Bowman of Springfield township, enlisted in Co. A, 56th O.V.I., October 1861, killed in battle at Fort Gibson, Mississippi, May 1st, 1863, aged 21, leaves a wife and one child.
George A. Shields of Springfield township, enlisted in Co. L, 7th O.V.C. August 30th, 1862, taken prisoner Nov. 6th, 1863 at Rogersville, Tenn., died in prison at Columbus, Ga., March 30th, 1864, aged 27, unmarried.
William Pope of Springfield township, enlisted in Co. L, 7th O. V. C. Sept. 1862, died in hospital at Lexington, Ky., March 21st, 1863, aged 33, leaves a wife and four children.
John C. Donnals of Green township, enlisted in Co.M, 7th O.V.C. Sept. 1862, died in hospital at Lexington, Ky., March 2d, 1863, aged 21, unmarried.

The Gallipolis Journal
October 26, 1865

     Great complaints are made by our citizens, relative to the delay in removing Government Buildings from our Public Square and other parts of town. Tax payers do not see the propriety of paying rent for Hospital grounds that have not been used for nearly four months, nor for stable lots, wholly unused for about the same time. Whilst such buildings in the South and elsewhere. are being rapidly sold, those in Gallipolis are suffered to remain as they were left, and becoming every day less valuable. As winter approaches, they will sell for still less money, as few will care about removing them in a limited time, in bad weather. We do not know who is to blame for the delay. Capt. Fleming comes in of course for his share of censure, but we believe very unjustly, as he could not delay the sale if ordered, or hold it without orders if he felt disposed to sell. We have heard him spoken of as a very efficient officer, and in the absence of any personal interest he could derive one way or the other, it would seem but simple justice to accord him the credit of acting in good faith until the contrary be shown.

The Dead of Andersonville
Report of Capt. Moore
     The following report of Capt. J. M. Moore, A.Q.M., who was sent to Andersonville, Georgia, to mark the graves of Union prisoners for future identification, contains valuable information, in which the people are interested and (which) will doubtless be appreciated by the relatives and friends of those who have given their lives to their country:

A.Q.M.'s Office, Dep't. of Washington, Washington, D.C., Sept. 20, 1865

To Brevet Maj. Gen. C. M. Meigs, Q.M.General, U.S.A., Washington:
     In accordance with special Orders No. 19, Quartermaster General's Office, dated June 30, 1865, directing me to proceed to Andersonville, Ga., for the purpose of marking the graves of Union soldiers for future identification, and inclosing the cemetery, I have the honor to report as follows:
     I left Washington on the 8th of July last, with mechanics and materials, for the purpose above mentioned. On my arrival at Savannah, I ascertained that there was no railroad communication whatever with Andersonville, the direct road to Macon being broken, and that from Augusta via Atlanta also in the same condition. I endeavored to procure wagon transportation, but was informed by the General commanding the Department of Georgia that a sufficient number of teams could not be had in the State to haul one-half of my stores, and as the roads were bad, and the distance more than 400 miles, I abandoned all idea of attempting a road through a country difficult and tedious under more propitious circumstances. The prospect of reaching Andersonville at this time was by no means favorable, and nearly one week had elapsed since my arrival at Savannah. I had telegraphed to Augusta, Atlanta, and Macon almost daily, and received replies that the railroads were not completed. At length, on the morning of the 18th of July, a gratifying telegram from Augusta was received announcing the completion of the Augusta and Macon Road to Atlanta. I at once determined to procure a boat and proceed to Augusta by the Savannah river. The dispatch boat was secured, and in twenty-four hours after the receipt of the telegram alluded to, was on my way with my men and material for Augusta. On my arrival there, I found the railroad completed to Macon, and that from Macon to Andersonville having never been broken, I experienced little difficulty reaching my destination, where I arrived July 15th [sic] after a tiresome trip of six days and nights. At Macon, Major General Wilson detailed one company of the 4th U. S. Cavalry, and one company from the 137th U.S.C.T., to assist me. A member of the former company was killed at a station named Montezuma, on the Southwestern Railroad. The rolling stock of all the roads over which I traveled, is in a miserable condition; and very seldom a greater rate of speed was obtained than twelve miles an hour. At different stations along the route the object of the expedition was well known, and not infrequently men wearing the garb of rebel soldiers would enter the cars and discuss the treatment of our prisoners at Andersonville, all of whom candidly admitted that it was shameful and a blot on the reputation of the South, which years would not efface. While encamped at Andersonville I was daily visited by men from the surrounding country, and had an opportunity of learning their feelings toward the Government, and with hardly an exception found those who had been in the rebel army penitent and more kindly disposed than those who never took part, and anxious to become citizens of the government they fought so hard to destroy. On the morning of the 20th of July the work of identifying the graves, painting and lettering the head boards, laying out the walks and inclosing the cemetery was commenced, and on the evening of August 16th was completed, with the exceptions hereafter mentioned. The dead were found buried in trenches on the site selected by the rebels, about thirty yards from the stockade. The trenches were from two to three feet below the surface, and in several instances where the rain had washed away the earth, but a few inches of additional earth was thrown on the graves, making them of still greater depth. So close were they buried, without coffins or ordinary clothing to cover their nakedness, that not more than 12 inches were allowed to each man. Indeed the little tablets marking their resting place, measuring hardly ten inches in width, almost touched each other. The United States soldiers, while prisoners at Andersonville, had been detailed to inter their companions, and by a simple stake at the head of each grave, which bore the number corresponding with a similar numbered name upon the Andersonville Hospital record, I was enabled to identify and mark with a tablet, similar to those in the cemeteries at Washington, the number, name, mark, regiment, &c., and date of death, of 12,466 graves, there being but 467 which bore the inscription "Unknown U. S. soldiers," 120,000 feet of pine lumber were used in these tablets alone.
     The cemetery contains 50 acres, and has been divided by one main avenue running through the center, and subdivided into blocks and sections in such a manner that with the aid of the record which I am now having copied for the Superintendent, the visitors will experience no difficulty in finding any grave. A force of men is now engaged in laying out walks, and cleaning the cemetery of stumps, preparatory to planting trees and flowers. I have already commenced the manufacture of brick, and will have a sufficient number by the first of October to pave the numerous gutters throughout the cemetery. The clay in the vicinity of the stockade is well adapted for the purpose of brick making. Appropriate inscriptions are placed through the grounds, and I have arranged, so far as my facilities would permit, to transfer this wild and unhonored graveyard into a fit place of interment for the nation's gallant dead. At the entrance the words "A National Cemetery, Andersonville, Ga." designates the city of the dead. On the morning of the 17th of Aug. at sunrise, the stars and stripes were hoisted in the centre [sic] of the Cemetery, when a national salute was fired and several national songs sung by those present.
     The men who accompanied me, and to whom I am indebted for the early completion of my mission, worked zealously and faithfully from early in the morning until late at night, although suffering intensely from the effect of the heat, unaccustomed to it as they were. One after another was taken sick with the fever incident to the country, and in a brief period my force of mechanics was considerably lessened, obliging me to obtain others from the residents in different parts of the State. All my men, however, recovered, with the exception of Mr. Eddy Watts, who died on the 16th of July, of typhoid fever, after a sickness of three weeks. I brought his body back with me, and delivered it to his family in this city.
     Several of the United States cavalry detailed by Gen. Wilson, died of the same fever shortly after joining their commands at Macon. Andersonville is situated on the Southwestern Railroad, sixty miles from Macon. There is but one house in the place, except those erected by the so-called Confederate Government as hospitals, officers' quarters, and Commissary and Quartermasters' buildings. It was formerly known as Anderson, but since the war the ville has been added. The country is covered mostly with pines and hemlocks, and the soil is sandy, sterile and unfit for cultivation, and unlike the section of the country but a few miles north and south, of the place, where the soil is well adapted for agricultural purposes, and cotton as well as corn is extensively raised. It is said to be the most unhealthy part of Georgia, and was probably selected as a depot for prisoners on account of this fact. At midday the thermometer in the shade reached frequently 110 degrees, and in the sun the heat is almost unbearable. The inhabitants of this sparsely settled locality are with few exceptions, of the most ignorant class, and from their haggard and sallow faces, the effects of chills and fever are distinctly visible. The noted prison pen is 1,540 feet long and 750 wide, and contains 27 acres. The dead line is 17 feet from the stockade, and the sentry boxes are 30 yards apart. The inside stockade is 18 feet high, the outer one 12 feet high, and the distance between the two is 120 feet. Nothing has been destroyed. As our exhausted, emaciated, and enfeebled soldiers left it, so it stands today, as a monument to an inhumanity unparalieled [sic] in the annals of war. How men could survive as well as they did in this pen, exposed to the rays of an almost tropical sun by day, and drenching dews by night, without the slightest covering, is wonderful. The ground is filled with the holes where they had burrowed in their efforts to shield themselves from the weather, and many a poor fellow, in endeavoring to protect himself in this manner, was smothered to death by the earth falling in upon him. A very worthy man has been appointed superintendent of the grounds and cemetery, with instructions to allow no building or structures of whatever nature to be destroyed, particularly the stockade surrounding the prison pen. The stories told of the sufferings of our men while prisoners there have been substantiated by hundreds, and the sceptic [sic] who will visit Andersonville, even now, and examine the stockade with its oozy sand, cramped and wretched burrows, the dead line and slaughter house, must be a callous observer indeed, if he is not convinced that the miseries depicted of this prison pen are no exaggeration.
     I have the honor to be, General, your obedient servant [signed]
     Jas. M. Moore, Capt. and A.Q.M.U.S.A.

The Gallipolis Journal
November 9, 1865

Record of Soldiers Enlisting from Gallia Co., Ohio, who Died in the Service

Dixon Gudgeon, enlisted in Co. H, 56th O.V.I., died in prison in Louisiana, 10th of May, 1864—unmarried.
John Mears, private in 18th Ohio Battery, died at Chattanooga June 3d, 1865—unmarried.
Hiram Morris, private Co. I, 27th Reg't. O.V.I., died at U.S. Hospital at Beaufort, S.C., April 14th, 1865, leaving a widow and children.
William Elkins, private Co. B, 173d O.V.I., died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 2d, 1865, leaves a wife and child.
Robert Murray, private Co. I, 173d O.V.I., died July 14th, leaving a widow and children.
William W. Tanner, aged 32 years, enlisted from Perry township, Co. H, 1st Reg't. O.H.A., died at Knoxville, Tenn., 25th of April 1864, of small pox, leaving a widow and five children.
Ephraim Odell, enlisted from Green township as a substitute, in Co. F, 29th Reg't. O.V.I. October 12th, 1864, and died in Hospital at Savannah, Georgia, of chronic diarrhea Feb. 2, 1864, aged 18.

Ed. Journal:
     Allow me through the columns of your paper, to tender our thanks to our friends in Gallipolis, who on the evening of the 18th ult., paid us a visit, and after partaking of their own repast, in proof of their good will and kindness, left us in money and other valuables about $175.
     H. Z. Adams

Ohio University, Athens, O., Nov., 1865

Editor Journal: Sir:
     To meet the constant inquiries of soldiers concerning the free tuition in the Ohio University provided for them by State legislation, will you please to state through your columns:

1. That any honorably discharged Ohio Volunteer, who entered the service a minor, is entitled to free tuition in the Ohio University, for as long time as he was in the service under age.
2. Soldiers availing themselves of this provision must procure from the Adjutant General at Columbus (it will be furnished on application by letter) a certificate stating the time spent in the service as a minor. This certificate will be their ticket of admission to Ohio University.
3. Soldiers, as other students, are examined before admission to classes, and classified strictly according to their attainments.
4. All applications for admission to the Preparatory Department of the University are required to be thoroughly acquainted with Arithmetic through Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, and English Grammar through Etymology. The University will gladly welcome to its halls any who have honored their State by fighting under its flag, but it is earnestly recommended (th)at all who may not be advanced as far as indicated above, that they spend at least one term at public or other schools, preparatory to applying for admission to the University. The next term will commence Dec. 4.
     It may be of interest to your residents to learn that, already, soldiers from all parts of the State, and representing a large number of regiments, ranking from field officer to private, are attending the University under the above arrangement;—and it may interest the soldiers of your county to know that ample provision is made by the officers of the Institution to secure to such as may attend the amplest benefit of the gratuity offered them by the State.
     Very Respectfully,
     Eli T. Tappan, Sec'y. of the Faculty

     I can take and do take better Photographs, Ambrotypes, and all kinds of Types, than any other operator in this region. If I don't, you can have your money back. My room is on Second street, just below E. Deletombe's new building.
     C. C. CAREL              Nota Bene Particular—I don't take 100 Pictures daily.

The Gallipolis Journal
November 16, 1865

[Wirz is also spelled Wirtz in many publications.]

     Henry Wirz, the monster who had charge of Andersonville prison, paid the penalty of his crimes, on Friday last at Washington, by being hung. Great efforts were made by his counsel, and friends to have his sentence commuted to imprisonment for life. As in the case of the assassins of Lincoln, President Johnson proved inflexible, and the law suffered to take its course. Society is rid of the fiend, the memory of our murdered soldiers avenged, and the barbarity of Southern chivalry shown to be without a paralell in the annals of the world. Yet, after all, Wirz was but the tool of Davis and Lee. He was either acting under orders, or if not, his cruelties were well known to the Rebel Government, and acquiesced in. Under any aspect of the case, history will hold them responsible, and our Government cannot escape censure if their leaders fail to receive the reward due their crimes.

     By a late order of the War Department, the officers and men of the Veteran Reserve Corps are to be offered the choice of continuing in the service, or being mustered out. The officers prefer to remain. The privates would prefer muster out. This being the case officers may find themselves without a command. We look on it as a scheme to muster out the whole corps, but affording the two classes a chance to express their wishes, knowing the preference of the privates, which when acceded to will result in the muster out of the officers.

The Gallipolis Journal
November 30, 1865

    John W. Shaver, late of the Trumbull Guards, and Isaac D. White, Co. K, 3d Va. Cav., can hear of something to their advantage by calling at the O.S. Mil. Agency in Gallipolis.

     The steamer Cottage No. 2 has been lying at our wharf for several weeks repairing and fitting up. She is now owned by Capt. James Newton, Col. J. L. Vance, Capt. Jas. Mossman and others. These gentlemen have expended about $3,000 in repairs, all of which has been paid out to merchants and mechanics of Gallipolis. This spirit of encouraging our own business men, instead of those of Cincinnati, is in the right vein, and should be properly appreciated by those who derive the benefits. The Cottage under charge of Capt. Newton, will run regularly from Kanawha to Cincinnati, and will be in all respects a first class packet. Passengers and shippers may rely on being properly accommodated. Col. J. L. Vance and Capt. Mossman, will attend to the duties of the office.

The Gallipolis Journal
December 14, 1865

     The steamer Cottage 2 is now lying at our wharf. Forward of the pilot house she is a most complete wreck, and the wonder is how any person on board that part of the boat escaped with life. Since our last issue, Mr. Rogers, a brother-in-law of Dr. G. W. Livesay of Gallipolis, on board at the time of the explosion, has died. S. H. Shenk, of Gallipolis, died on Thursday last, making the number of deaths thus far, four. Capt. Newton and Col. Vance are recovering, though the latter is still not out of danger.

The Gallipolis Journal
December 21, 1865

     We are gratified to learn that our friend W. G. Fuller of the firm of Hayward & Fuller, has been promoted to Major and Lieut. Col. by brevet of vols. to date from 13th March 1865, for meritorious services and devoted application to duty as supt. of Telegraph during the war.

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